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Sample Short Notes: General Studies HP for HAS and allied

Sample Short Notes @ Helios

 

 

 

 

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  • HP: Revision Pointers
      • HP: Approx. Latitude 30N to 33N and Longitude 75E to 79E.
      • HP Population -68,64,602; density =123 persons (Highest Hamirpur=407 & lowest L&S=2)
      • 69% population dependent on Agriculture, 90% is rural population. Per capita income of HP is at 1,04,943 for 2014-15.
      • Total Roads Length = 34,647 Kms. R C Scot introduced Apples to the Kullu valley in 1870 & SN Stokes in Thanedhar (1916)
      • HP = Centrally Admin. Territory – 15th April, 1948.1951, HP became a part“C” State (36 Member assembly)
      • HP’s first Chief Commissioner – Mr. Mehta & E. Penderal Moon (Deputy)
      • 1883 –Jugga Movement (Self-immolation, Bilaspur). 1960, Kinnaur formed out of Chini Tehsil, Mahasu (Later Shimla)
      • Kullu, Kangra, L&S, Shimla joined HP– 1st Nov 1966
      • Hamirpur, Una created (Shimla & Solan reorganised) – 1st Sept 1972
      • 1857 –Jatogh Revolt – Under Bhim Singh. 1939 – Kunihar Struggle (Pt.Padam Dev) & Dhami Firing – on 16 July (Bhagmal Sahota)
      • 1942 –Panjotha Movement (Sirmour) – “Bhai do na pai”. Pahari Gandhi – Baba Kanshi Ram= Wore black clothes
      • Fazl Ali– Chairman of State Re-organisation Comm. (Other Members: Panicker & Kunzru)
      • Suket Satyagrah– 18 Feb 1948 (Pt. Padam Dev against Raja Laxman Singh)
      • Mandi Agitation(against Raja and Wazir Padha Jeevanand)-1909-10
      • 1938-Formation of Himalayan Riyasati Praja Mandal @ Ludhiana.
      • 30thSept 1948 – 9 Member Advisory Council setup
      • 1stMarch 1952 – Chief commissioner was replaced by Lt.Guv (MJ Himmat Singh)
      • Bilaspur a “C” state added – 1 July 1954.  24 March 1952 – 1st Vidhan Sabha. 1 Nov 1956 – HP made a UT
      • 15 Aug 1957 – Territorial Council (Karam Singh Thakur, Chairman)
      • 25 Jan 1971 – HP becomes 18thState (PM Indira @ Ridge)
      • 1978- HP Agri University Palampur, YSP Solan Univ. 1985
      • High Court, HPPSC, HPU– 1971. HP Subordinate Services, Hamirpur – 1998
      • Jan 2000 – PVC Capt Vikram Batra & Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, 1stSomnath Sharma
      • 26 May 2002,Rohtang Tunnel foundation laid by PM Vajpayee
      • YS Parmar, CM of HP –1952, 1963, 1967 & 1972
      • 1stGuv: S. Chakarvarti, 1st Vidhan Sabha Speaker: Jaiwant Ram; M S Beg – 1st Chief Justice; Leela Seth: 1stlady Chief Justice of HP High court. 1st Lady Speaker: Vidya Stokes
      • 1stPadam Shri : K C Mahajan. HP declared hill state – 1964
      • Kalidasa in Kumara-Sambhava called Himachal Devata-Aatma or Divine Soul & mentioned”Kinners”
      • HP State Flower (Declared: 2007) –Pink Rhododendron (Gulaabi buraansh), Rhododendron Campanulatum
      • HP State Bird (Declared: 2007) – Jujurana = King of Birds (Western Tragopan)
      • HP State Animal (Declared: 2007) -Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia)
      • HP State Tree – Deodar (Cedrus deodara)
      • Su-Sharma Chander{Built Kangra Fort (on river Manjhi & Banganga) & Trigarta Empire =Kangra+Chamba)} supported Kaurav & Fought Pandav
      • Rivers :Biggest=Chenab(Askini)=Chandra+Bhaga @ Tandi, Longest – Satluj 320Km = Satudri @ Rakas/Mansarovar, Smallest – Yamuna=22km.Ravi (Parushini/Iravati) origin@ Bhara-Bhangal, Beas(Arijikiya/Vipasha)=Hyphasis @Vyas Kund, Rohtang .@ its Banks: 12 God’s Altars by Alexander B/W Indora & Mirthal
      • Devodas {Rishi Bhardwaj was his Chief Counselor, His son=Sudas (fought battle of 10 Kings)} =Devodas Killed King Sambhar @ Uduvraj(Kirat)=40 years=99 Forts destroyed.
      • Battle of Hydapes (Jhelum)=326BC=Alexander beats Porus(King Parvatak)
      • Ashoka Stupa= Kullu Valley & Paonta Valley (Indo-Aryan Art)
      • Maharaja Sansar Chand(1765-1823)=Grandson of Ghamand Chand Katoch(Guv. of Jalandhar instated by AS Abdali, & Def. By Jassa Singh Ramgarhiya (1770))=MSC, Son of Tegh Chand=MSC,Father of Anirudh Chand=1810,Signed Treaty of Jwalamukhi; retired to Lamba-graon (Gram)
      • 1814-16=Gurkha War= Gen. OchterloneyVs Amar Singh Thapa(Gurkhaz, 1809 def. By Sansar Chand & Maharaja Ranjit Singh)
      • King JanamTapi was killedby Rishi Vashistha For Insulting Hills of Himachal
    • S.No.             KINGS                                                  CITY/TOWN                     
    •                       Dip Chand                                         Bilaspur(1650-56)
    •                      Vijay Ram Chand                               Bijapur Town(Kangra)
    •                      Garur Sen                                          Sundernagar(1712)
    •                     Karam Prakash                                    Nahan(1621)(Sirmaur)
    •                      Major Kennedy                                   Shimla(1822)
    •                      Sahil Varman                                           Chamba(920-40)
    •                   Susharma Chandra                                       Kangra
    •                   Bahingmuni  Pal                                           Kullu(1 Cent AD)
    •                    Ajbar Sen                                                   Mandi(1526)
    •                    Raja Ram Singh                                          Rampur(Shimla)
    •                     Rana Tegh Chand                                       Jubbal(16th century)(Shimla)
    •                     Ghamand Chand                                        Sujanpur
    •                      Jethpal(Tomar Rajput)                              Nurpur(1000)

    KING/FOUNDER                                        STATE/DOMINION

      •                          Hari Chand                                                   Guler State(1405)
      •                          Ratna Bhadra                                               Kullu State
      •                          Bir Chand Chandel                                       Kehlur Dominion(900)
      •                          Ajay Chand                                                   Nalagarh Dominion(1000)
      •                          Maru                                                        Chamba Dominion(550)
      •                          Bahu Sen                                                      Mandi Dominion(1200)
      •                          Bir Sen                                                          Suket State(765)
      •                          Shubhansh Prakash                                      Sirmaur State(1195)
      •                          Abhoj Deo                                                     Kunihar Dominion(1154)
    • Shivratri Fair = Mandi = 1stGods Visit Raj Madho Rai (Leads Procession) Temple =Kamrunag(Rain God),chief deity=Pay Homage to Shiva(@ Bhootnath)=Raja of Mandi Suraj singh Lost  18 sons, in 1648 handed over admin. to Madho(Krishna) & got made a silver idol by Bhim=celebrated since+Guru-Chela predict next year Events, Jagaran @ end
    • Minjar (Chamba)=Maize Flower=Chamba=August=Horse Decorated, offerings 2 God Varuna at Ravi=Raja Sahil Varman defeated tribal Turukash=People Offered Minjar to King who gave Asharfis(gold)=celebrated since.
    • Nalwari Fair=Bilaspur=started by Goldstein during Raja Amar Chand’s rule=trading in Cattle=March. = 1889
    • Baisakhi Mela=At Rukamani Kund & Mata Rukmani Shrine,Bilaspur=In Memory of Rukmani Who Sacrificed her life for providing drinking water in this dry area.
    • Nalwar Fair=Sundernagar=March/April=Cattle Fair
    • Lavi Fair=Ancient most Trade Fair(235 years old)=Rampur=Nov.
    • Thissur Fair=Rewalsar in Mandi
    • Sippi Fair=Mashobra(Shimla)=Lord Shiva=Started by Rana of Koti
    • Dolru Fair=New Year Festival=Bharmour
    • Ladarcha Mela=Kaza,Spiti=July/Aug=A Commercial, cultural and religious fair attended by Traders from Ladakh, lahaul,Bushahr,Spiti
    • Gataur Festival=Sept.=Spiti=Lamas worship God Chaugayal=Chham dance(To celebrate Killing of cruel Tibetan ruler Langdarma) is performed.
    • Losar=celebrated to mark Tibetan New year=Upper Kinnaur
    • Jakaru Fair=Pangi=End of Feb.=Thanksgiving to God for helping local people to survive winter.
    • Renuka(Mother of Parshuram,wife of Rishi Jamdagini) Fair=Sirmur=After Kharif crops cultivation=Nov.
    • Vrajeshwari Fair=twice a year=Kangra.
    • Chatrali(called Chatra in Kullu,Dholru in Brahmpur)=March-April(Chet)=Dhaki &Turicaste People Dance on the courtyard of village Temple=For Happiness & Prosperity=Dholru, Ching(Related Hill folk songs).
    • Festival of Rainy Season=Shegteran(lahaul)=Totu(A Ball of Sattu Flour with Butter on it)& Marigold Floweroffered to Guru Ghantalor Gophen by throwing in air,Haryali(Kangra,Sirmur)=Cattles are given Rest & worshiped=Farmers pick Cheeran(lice ,bugs,insects etc.) from Cattle,Rahyali(Upper Shimla Hills),Dakhren(Jubbal & Kinnaur).
    • Cherwal(called Badranjo in Kullu,Partodu in Chamba=Special Dish Patroduis cooked)=Festival of Fire=Mid. August=Chira(Earth dug from Fields & placed B\w slabs of Wood & around it Turf & flowers are tied)formed & worshiped.
    • Phulech = Flower(Ukhyang,locally known Ookayand)=Kinnaur=mid. August or Early Sept.=Festival of Flowers=Garlands of Flower offered to village Deity=Priest Forecast about crops,change in seasons.
    • Bori Diali (called Budhi  Diwli &Kole-ri-Diwali in kullu=Signify victory of Khash Over Nag/kol(also mentioned By Lal Chand Prarthi in his book “Kulut Desh Ki Kahani”) =People Dance Around Bonfire, sing Ramayana & Mahabharta,Khojala in Lahaul=during Full moon Time in jan.=Throw Burning Mashals, Leaves of Deodar Tree in The name of Gephan & Brajeshwari Devi
    • Khumbh Of Hill People(12 year)=Bhunda(Brahmin)=In Nirmand Worship Parshguram &Kali=In Bhunda Ceremony a person of Beda caste(an Old Naga caste)is put on the rope made of special grass (Munji)orMoonj, Shant(Rajput)=winter=means Peace & Prosperity.Bhoj(koli), Nawala(Gaddi)
    • Dushehra=Kullu=July 1651,Damodar Dass got Lord Raghunathji Idol From Ayodhya=installed by Raja Jagat Singh{1637-1672}(To Avoid Curse by Durga Dutt)=devoted his Kingdom to Lord Raghunathji=Fair celebrated since=under Bairagi Krishna Dass(Introduced Vaisnavism in Valley).
    • Ghantal Festival=Guru Ghantal Gompa=mid june=Lahaul
    • Nawala=Festival Of Gaddis=Kangra,Chamba,Kullu,Mandi=To Lord Shiva.
    • Chatrari Jatra=vill. Chitrari,Chamba=10th day of Waxing Moon in Sept.=Shakti Devi Worshipped &Mask Dances are Performed.
    • Suhi Fair=Chamba Town=11,12,13th April=Only Attended by women & children=From the time of Raja Sahil Varman(920-40AD)=Sunayana Devi(Suhi Mata) sacrificed herself to bring water to Chamba town at Maloon=Palanquin-shaped Suhi temple is located on Hillock above Chamba Town
    • Dal Fair=Also Lake=Dharamsala=Aug.=Girths & Gorkhas are Found of it.
    • Dhungri Fair=Manali=May=Godess Hadimba.
    • Sair Fair=Arki town,Solan=16th sept.=Thanks Giving for abundant rain=Buffalo Fighting=also in vill. Dhagogi(Mashobra) called Jhote ka Mela in sept. Gandhi Mela=30th Jan.(Gandhi assassinated)=Amboa, distt. Sirmaur
    • Pather ka Khel=vill. Halog(Dhami,Shimla)=People throw Stones at one another till someone bleeds.
    • Ladarcha Fair=vill. Khibar=July/Aug.=Traders meet & Barter their Products.
    • Trilokinath Fair=Lahaul=Aug.=Honour of Avlokiteshwar
    • Phool Jatra=Pangi,Chamba=15 oct.=Dehant Nag(Deity of Kupha) is Worshipped.
    • Toshim=Kinnaur=celebrated and organized by male Youth only. Triloknath or Avalokiteshwar(Bodhisattava)Temple=Built by Lalitaditya=Padma Sambhava  Transformed it into Buddhist Shrine(Oldest Temple of buddhist After Bodh Gaya)
    • Mrikula Devi(Kali Devi) Temple @ Udaipur, Lahul Spiti = Ajay Varman
    • Hadimba Mandir(its a four-tiered Pagoda) = 1550 A.D  =Raja Bahadur Singh(Manali) = Bhim Killed her brother TANDI
    • Shakti Devi Temple(Bharmour) = Meru Varman(+ Mani-Mahesh Temple, Lakshna Devi at Bharmour, Chamba)
    • Gauri-Shankar Temple, Narvdeshwar Temple & Murli-Manohar Temple = Sujnapur -Tihra =Maharaja Sansar Chand
    • Balikeswar Temple = Nadaun =  Bhimakali Temple = Sarahan
    • Laxmi-Narayan, Hari-Rai Temple, Chandershekhar Temple, Kameshwar Temple & Champavati Temple = Sahil Varman (10th Century)
    • Tripura Sundari= Trilokpur (Nahan) = Raja Deep Prakash  in 1573
    • Naina Devi = Rajar Bir Chand. Shayam-Kali Temple = Mandi = Shyam Sen
    • Mandi=Choti Kashi=81 Temples=Trilokinath= 1520, Built by Sultan Devi=Raja Ajbar Sen’s Queen
    • Karewa-Shimla Hill Widow Remarriage,Called Jhanjarara or Gudaniin Kangra,Cholidoriin Chamba
    • Kee=Largest Monastry in HP=Spiti(between Khiber & Kaza)=Left Bank Of Spiti River
    • Kanjur & Tanjur=Encyclopedia Of Lamaism. Bhuri Singh Museum=Chamba=Estb. in 1908.
    • Major Charles Pratt Kennedy, made 1st Pucca House in Shimla (around Shamla Devi Temple) & invited Governor General of Bengal Lord Amherst to stay in 1827. Chamba=Valley of Milk & Honey.
    • 1stRailway line opened 9 Nov, 1903 = 30 years, @ cost of Rs. 1.6 crore=  96 Km=Narrow Gauge =762 mm= Now, 102 tunnels, 864 bridges(KLK-Shimla) = 2008-UNESCO World Heritage site (others sites are Darjeeling Himalayan Railway(WB) and the Nilgiri Mountain Railway (Ooty TN)
    • 1991(Jan.)-Himachal was linked with the Broad gauge system in UNA, By extending Delhi-Nangal Railway Line.
    • Haathidhar – Separates Kangra from Chamba
    • Kakrer Dhar – highest in Bilaspur – 1430 Mts.
    • Hanuman ka Tibba – Highest peak in Dhauladhar
    • Dangi Dhar – Between Jammu & Chamba
    • Kunjum Pass – separates Lahul & Spiti
    • Lahul = ‘Layo-ul’ = Southern Country
    • Malana= Little Greece of HP = Oldest Democracy
    • Rohtang= Pile of corpse= Gateway 2 Spiti, Pangi, Lahul & Zanskar
    • Shipki-la Pass=@Kinnaur=Gateway 2 Tibet=Satluj enters IND
    • Beas Gufa=@ Bilaspur=100 Mts Long
    • Sarur Cave=@Tatapani (656 Mts.) & Latru Mahadev Cave (Arki)=Shiv
    • Karol Tibba=Pandav refuge=Solan
    • Zanskar= Eastern Range=B/W Kinnaur & Spiti from Tibet. Mt. Shilla=7025 mts.
    • Smallest town=Naina Devi; Largest=Shimla
    • Wild Flower Hall= Residence of Lord Kitchener=C-in-C of India
    • The Retreat= Resort of Lord Curzon
    • Hem Kunj’ ( formerly “Dane’s Folly” ) = summer resort of the Punjab Governor
    • HP has 4 Zoos: Gopalpur / Kufri+ Tuttikandi / Renuka / Rewalsar
    • Music for “Kadam-2 badhaye ja” = Capt. Veer Ram Singh = Khaniara
    • 1857 = Sub. Bheem Singh = lead revolt from Kasauli 2 Jatogh (SML)

     

Source: Er. Prikshit @ Helios  (compiled Notes)

 INDIAN History after 1857

  • Dada Bhai Naroji= Grand Old Man of India= Book-Poverty & UN-British rule in India = Drain of wealth theory = INC President: 1886, 1893 & 1906
  • D. Savarkar called Revolt of 1857 “First War Of Indian Independence”
  • General Bakht Khan from Bareilly Regiment Captured Delhi but Lost Delhi to English Led by John Nicholson in Sept. 1857.
  • Pioneer of Constitutional Agitation-Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Swami Vivekananda wrote “The only Hope of India is From Masses”
  • INC formed during Lord Dufferin = 1stSession =28–31 December 1885, Bombay = was attended by 72 delegates. 1st Prez = Womesh Chander Bannerjee = A O Hume, Founder
  • Partition Of Bengal-Under Lord Curzon(Viceroy) on 16th Oct. 1905=Mourning of Bengal=Partition scheme was basically worked out with H.H. Risley.
  • Congress session of 1905 at Benares was held under Presidency of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Servants of  Indian Society was launched  in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Ghokahle.
  • Congress Split-1907,Suratsession as Rashbehari Ghosh,a moderate, was not acceptable to Extremists as President. they wanted Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Prominent INC Presidents:1887 = Badruddin Tyabji (First Muslims Prz), 1890-Pherozeshah Mehta (1sttime calculated Per Capita Income in IND),  1924-Mahatma Gandhi @ Belgaum (Netaji called him “The Father of Our Nation” @ Rangoon, 1944),     1931-Vallabhbhai Patel,  1938 (Haripura) & 39 (Tripuri) = Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (Gandhi Called him patriot of patriots/Prince among patriots in 1942)
  • Bala Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)= Father of Indian Unrest (called by Valentine Chirol)= Lokmanya Tilak= Home Rule League (1915-16)at Poona= Started Ganesh Utsav in MH (1894) = Maratha (Eng) & Kesari (Marathi) Papers= “Swaraj is my birthright”= Books -“Shrimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya” & “The Arctic Home in the Vedas”
  • Home Rule League under Annie Besant(Paper-New India) & S. Subramaniya Iyer at Madras.
  • Lucknow Pact=1916=Reunion of Congress Factions along With Muslim League.
  • All India Muslim League Founded at Dacca in 1906. Founders = Salimullah SA Khan et al.
  • Mahatma Gandhiwas in South Africa from 1893-1914 against General Smut’s Regime
  • In 1915 Set up Ashram at Ahmedabad on Banks of the Sabarmati River.
  • In April 1917 successfully put an end to Oppression of The Indigo Planters on the Peasants of Champaran in North Bihar.
  • Mahatma GandhiFor the First Time undertook a Fast in India=Ahmedabad Mills strike.
  • Mahatma GandhiCame in Contact with Vallabh bhai Patel During his Campaign in Kheda(Gujarat) in 1918.
  • On Feb. 1919,Mahatma Gandhifounded the Satyagraha Sabha against Rowlatt Act(Passed on March,1919)
  • Non-Cooperation Movement was the First Mass-Based Political Movement Under Mahatma
  • Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on March 5,1931.
  • GandhiAttended Second Round Table Conference on Sept. 7,1931.
  • Gandhi Began a Fast unto Death at Yeravada Prison At Poona against Ramsay MacDonald’s Announcement of Communal Award on 17 aug. 1932.Later on Agreement B/w Caste Hindus & its Leaders was Secured And Came To Be Known as Poona Pact Of 25 Sept. 1932.An All India Anti-Untouchability League was Started in Sept. 1932 & A Weekly Harijan In Jan. 1933
  • Gandhi on 12 March 1930 set out from Ahmedabad to Dandi  Broke Salt law on April 6.He Was Arrested on May 5,before he Could make salt at Dharsana.
  • Act of 1876 – Queen Victoria = Empress of India
  • Pattabhi Sitaramayya,Gandhi’s Nominee ,was defeated by Subhas Bose in 1939 to become President of Congress at Tripuri .
  • On Dec. 31,1929,The Newly adopted Tri-Colour Flag was Unfurled.
  • Jallianwala Bagh(Amritsar) Massacre on 13th,April 1919(Baisakhi) by Lt. Governer Michael O’ Dwyer on Crowd gathered against the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew & Dr. Satyapal. Later Hunter Commission = 1919, to probe Jallianwala Bagh. 1940, @ Caxton Hall ( London), Udham Singh killed Michael O’Dwyer.
  • Khilafat Committee formed By Maulana Azad,Hakim Ajmal Khan,Hasrat Mohini Muhammad Ali & Shaukat Ali.
  • The Tilak Swarajya Fund was started in April 1921(Vijayawada session of AICC)
  • April 8,1929 Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt threw a BOMB in the Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh on 17th Dec. 1928 Shot Dead Saunders(ASP,Lahore),Bhagat Singh wrote “Why I Am Atheist” in Lahore Jail
  • Saheed Chandersekhar Azad (b. 23 July 1906)= Mentor of Sh. Bhagat Singh= HSRA=“Saheed”  @ Alfred Park (Allahabad, 27 Feb 1931)
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan(Frontier Gandhi) organized the society of ‘Khudai khidmatdars'(Servents of God)Also Known as “Red Shirts”.
  • Bengal(Krishak Praja Party-Muslim League Coalition) & Punjab(Unionist Party) are The two Provinces that Had Non Congress Ministries after 1937 Elections.
  • At Haripura Congress Session The Idea of Economic Planning Accepted.
  • Naren Bhattacharjee=Founder Of Communist Party Of India.
  • Lord Linlithgow Declared India To be at War During 2nd World war.
  • Dange was Editor of The Weekly Socialist From Bombay,The First Definitely Communist journal To be published in India.
  • Savarkar at Nagpur Session,1938,Declared-We Hindus are a Nation by Ourselves
  • VinobaBhave=First Person to Offer Individual Satyagrah in 1940.
  • At Lahore Session of Muslim League in March 1940,Jinnah introduced a resolution which included theDemand for Pakistan.
  • March 11,1942 Winston Churchill announced that British Cabinet was Sending a Mission to India under Sir Stafford Cripps.Crippsoffer was Called A “Post Dated Cheque”by Gandhi,thus rejected.
  • Quit India or Bharat Choro movement was Started on Aug. 8,1942 in Bombay.became Gandhi was arrested & kept at Aga Khan Palace(Pune).Newspapers like National Herald & Harijan were Banned.
  • INA chief Subhas Bose hoisted Indian Flag in Andamans(THE ‘SHAHID’)& Nicobar(THE ‘SWARAJ’)in Dec. 1943.Entered India Took Kohima & Planted National Flag On The Indian Soil on 19th March,1944,INA Flag was hoisted at Moirang (Manipur).
  • 6th July,1944,Subhas Bose Declared The Beginning of “India’s Last War of Independence”on Azad Hind Radio Broadcast.
  • Recent Books & Authors (2014):
  • Playing It My Way=An Autobiography of Cricket Star Sachin Tendulkar
  • 1283 goals=Pele
  • I Am Malala=An Autobiography of Malala Yousufzai(Nobel Peace Prize Winner 2014)
  • Gandhi Before India=Ramchandra Guha
  • How Not To Make Money=Raj Kundra
  • My Journey:Transforming Dreams Into Actions=Dr. APJ Kalam
  • Agenda For India’s Growth=P. Chidambaram
  • The Lowland=Jhumpa Lahiri
  • Fantastic Beasts And Where To Find Them(Harry Potter Companion Books)=Rowling
  • 2014:The Election That Changed India=Rajdeep Sardesai.
  • Unbreakable : An Autobiography=Mary Kom
  • The AccidentalPrime Minister : The Making and Unmaking of Manmohan Singh=Sanjaya Baru
  • One Life Is Not Enough : An Autobiography=Natwar Singh
  • The Narrow Road To The Deep North=Richard Flanagan(Winner 2014 Man Booker Prize)
  • The Lives of Others=Neel Mukherjee(Nominee 2014 Man Booker Prize)
  • India’s own Payment Gateway=RuPay
  • Earth Day=22 April, World Press freedom Day=May 3, International Nurse Day=12 May, World Public Service Day=June 23, World Refugee Day=June 20, International Day against Drug Abuse & Illicit Trafficking= June 26. 11 July World Population Day, 12 August International Youth Day
  • 15 September: International Day of Democracy, 27 September: World Tourism Day
  • Glasgow,Scotland=2014 Commonwealth games.
  • ‘And Then One Day’= Naseeruddin Shah’s autobiography
  • Hindi film ‘Liar’s Dice’, Indian entry to Oscars
  • Mission accomplished: India’s Mangalyaan enters Mars orbit September 24, 2014
  • General Dalbir Singh Suhag, taken over as the Army Chief (26th)
  • “Not Just an Accountant” authored byVinod Rai
  • “Odyssey of My Life”Shivraj Patil’s autobiography
  • Manipur=Clinched 20th Senior National Women’s Football Championship.
  • Russi Mody=The Steel Man Of India=Former Chief Of Tisco=Died
  • Extension.Bharatwhich will be in Devanagari script.

Other short notes:

(W-W-W)Willy – Willy = West AUS cyclone

(4S’s 2 remember) 1907 (Seven) = Surat = Split = Sardar Bhagat Singh = INC Prez RB Bose

1884  = Woods Dispatch = Magna Carta of Edu. in IND

CHENAB=      Baglihar Dam, Dul-hasti, Salal   ( Kashmir) B-D-S

1991 =          Year of Great divide in IND = Population decline

Venice of North = Stockholm; Queen of Adriatic = Venice

White man’s Grave = Guinea; Atacama Desert = Chile

Hyderabad @ MUSI River = City of pearls, Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tomb, Golconda fort + Hussain Sagar

16 Oct. 1945 = Bengal partition = World Food day

T S M I ( Troposphere stratosphere mesosphere Inosphere)

Lagoon Lakes = Chilka (OR) > pulicat (AP) > Vebnand (Kerala)

Spring tides= High, Neap Tides= Low

EL Nino (Low Rainfall, low pressure high Temp, droughts)

El Nino-MODOKI  = Causes Hurricanes

La Nina ( High R, Low P, Low T, High fishes) = Rain in IND

Dandi march ( 12 March 1930 – 6 April)

Mars> (Asteroid)< Jupiter (Biggest Gaseous)

Temperate Coniferous Forests = High % of Forest Area

Gypsies were Indians

Indonesia   =Largest archipelago= 14,000 islands, worlds 4th populas contry & world’s most populous island of Java contains 51% of the country’s population.

Victoria Falls (“Mosi-oa-Tunya”) between Zambia and Zimbabwe = Zambesi River

4 Feb – Cancer Day, 12 Jan = Youth Day (S. Vivekanand)

Michael Phelps (USA) = Most awarded Olympian EVER, 22 Medals (18 Gold)

Maj Gen Rajinder Singh Ji =Sparrow = State Bird of DL =

Walking with Lions, One Life is Not Enough = Natwar Singh (Book)

15 March = consumers rights Day

Franscois Holland – Prez off France ( Holland = France : : 1 : 1)

Almatty Dam = Krishna River ( Krishna = Almighty)

Tribals of A &N= ONGE (Negroids)

Anticyclone = (P high, T Low) = Clockwise in North hemi. (Cyclone is opposite)

Damodar Valley Corp = 1st multipurpose in IND = Based on TVA (V SA)

Tehri Dam = Highest @ Bhagirathi

Methur Dam (TN) Cauvery River

Peninsular Rivers: North to South : ( M > G > K > K > V) MAhandi, Godavari, Krishna,Kaveri, Vaigi (Mahatma Gandhi Krishi ka Vidylaya)

West Flowing River ( Narvada, Tapti, Mahi Luni, Ghaggar, Sabarmati) + No Delta = Form Estuary = No Sediments = Rift Valleys

Simplipal Reserve = Orissa ( OR + Simple People) + BIOSPHERE

(Now National Parks @ Mayurblanj)

RJ – Max Area under Saline (Salty ) wetland

Assam = { Manas, Nameri, Dibru-Saikhowa , Kazranga, ornag}

Jim Corbett ( 1936) + 1st national park, UK = Hailey (earlier)

(Total IND = 166) = 1.21% of IND, Area

Arvalli mountains = oldest in IND = 370 million years

NH – 7 = Varanasi to Kanya Kumari = IND Longest

Kol Dam= NTPC

Art. 108 = joint sitting of RS and LS

Art. 21A, 93 Amend = free Edu ( 6-14 years)

Greshams Law : Bad Money Drives out the good money

SATMO = Satellite Money order, 16 Dec, 1994

Apollo 11 = Landed on Moon (USA)

9 – 23 Dec, 1946 = 1st Session of Constituent assembly

Directive Principles = Ireland.

Union and state Relation = GOI Act 1935 and Canada

Concurrent list = Aus : Emergency = GER, USSR > Fund Rights

PIL and judicial Review – taken from USA. Gresham’s law : Bad Money drives out the good money.

SATMO > Satellite money order , 16 Des, 1994. Apollo 11 = Landed on Moon (USA). 9-23 Dec, 1946, = 1st Session of constitution assembly

Directive principles = Ireland. Union & `State Relation = Got Act 1935 & Canada

Concurrent list = Aus ; Emergency = Ger, USSR – Fund Rights pil a judicial Review = USA

1989 = voting age become 18in IND. IVC = Town Planning, Wheat and cotter Pea Barley, G Ramany, Both Trade C Mesopotamia a stamps = Bull, Elephant and Rhinos

Red Data book = IUCN _ endangered species. 1947 = QATT Agreement And 1 Jan, 1995 ( GAtt= WTO)

NATO = 1949. IST = 1905 = Lord Curzon. Cabinet Mission = 1946. 1932 = Communal Award = Ramsay  Mc Donald ( PM of UK)

1857 = During lord Canning ; 1885 = INC = Dufferin. Confederation = more power C states ( USA). Federal = mixed with powerful centre (IND)

Unitary = All with centre. President is Supreme commander = Art 53. Harappa = RAVI = 1921 (RD Sahani). Mohanjodaro = INDUS = 1922 ( RD Banerjee)

Max Muller Said =  Aryans Came from Central Asia. Sept (7) Sindhu = Sindhu + Sarsvati + 5 Tributary

World Economic Outlook = World Bank = Doing business Report. CIL / SAIL/ ONGC = Maharatna comp. Bangalore Metro = Namma Metro

Ends justify means = Machiavelli. Vivekanand = Belur Math = Calcutta

1807 = British Abolish slave Trade. Electrons = J. J. Thomson.

Shilla = 7026 mts = Zanskar. Bushehr = 1857 = did not support British. Sirmour= established by Rasalu

Waterloo @ Belgium = Napoleon lost 2 duke of wellington ( 1815 = sent to St. Elba, 1821, = St. Helena )

Unto 2 the last (Book) = John Ruskin = Gandhi took ideas from this and translated as sarvodya loksZn;)

Charminar = built by Adil Shah. 1878 = Vernacular Press Act = Lord Lytton

S.C. Bose called Gandhi = Father of nation. OPEC , HQ and Vienna. GAIT/IMF and WB IBRD = Bretton wood conference in 1944

24 July = Income Tax Day. Finance Comm. = Art 280. National Income Stats (GDP etc) = CSO. NHB (National honour Bank = RBI subsidiary)

Rigveda = 1028 Hyms = Diety = Saraswati. Yellow River = Hwang- ho = CHN = W Sediments

Deepest Trench = 11022 mts = Challenger Deep = Murray expenditure

1900 km = Great Barrier Reef and Australia (Corals )

Normal Lapse Rate = 6.5 C/ 1 km (Inversion of Temperature is opposite of it)

Thermometer = Insurance of Barometer ( T and 1 / p)

Ferrel Law ( based on Coriolis Force) = Wind turns right H. S in North Hemi and left in S.H.

Permanent = Planetary winds of Trade / westerlies / polar

Seasonal Winds = Monsoons (Goes to and fro in particular direction)

ITCZ = formed by merging NE and SE trade Winds = Fog is good 4 tea and coffee.

Rainfall types = (1) Convectional (2) Orographic (3) Cyclonic / Frontal

Typhoon : Tropical Cyclones in CHN

Mediterramean Climate = Dry Summer and Rain winter in N. IND Western Disturbance Starts @ Mediterrana

1st Census of IND = 1871 -72, 1970 – 75. AGRI Census.

15 Agri. Climatic Zone ( Given by ICAR and Planning Comm.): 2 Himalayas + Gangetic  plain + 4 plateau + 2 East + W Ghat + GUJ plains + RJ + Islands)

1972 = Chipko Andolan = Sunder Lal Bahuguna

Langer = CHN, Mandarin = ENG = SPANISH =HINDI = ARABIAN

1992 = Earth Summit = Rio DE Jinero

Sagar + Gangas’ son = Jalandhar = Jalam and Dhara

Tertiary coal J&K ( Kala Kot ) and NE, IND. Plague : Caused by Yersinia Pestris

Penicillin : 1929 = Alexander Fleming

Virus + 1898 = Beijernick. Microscope = 1590 = Jansen and 1665 Robert Hooke

1969 = Whittaker = classification of organism

1902 = blood groups = Land Steiner

Insulin = Banting and Best (dogs pancreas)

Gayatri Mantra = Savitri Devi ; Samved = Music

Yajurved = Sacrifices. Up-nishad = Sit + near + Guru

Puranas  are 18 in number. Vedang are (6) =Shiksha, kelp, vayakarn, Nvikut Chhand , jyotish (Parts of Vedas)

Mahajanpad = 16. Jains: Knowledge faith conduct (K.F.C.)

Nalanda University = Kumar gupt

Rastrakuta = Danti Durga founder = Ellora Temple

Surya Varman = II + Anghor Vat Temple

Nalanda and Vikram Shila = Destroyed by Baktiyar khalji

Prithviraj III = Prithviraj Chuhan = Lost 1192 Trian to Gori

Wild Flower hall @ Shimla = lord Ktchner

Antilla of India = Mihirgul

1000 And Nurpur = Jethpal. 1288 = Suket = Birsen, 1948 = Suket Satyagraha

1815 = Gorkha War= Ochterlony (Eng.) Commander

Trilokinath = by Laliladitya & Avlokiteshwar = Padam Sambhav( Also Gurughantal Monastery)  

Hatkoti = Mahisurmardini. Tabo= Ajanta of Himalyas

Kanjur and Tanjur : Encylopedia of Buddhism

1509 -29 = Krishan Dev Ray, Lost in 1565 Talikota 1347 = Bahmani Empire ( Muslim)

Sher Shah Suri= Silver Rupiya = Farid khan. Beats humyan in 1539 and 1540 Khilji

Humanyu Died 1556, fell @ Library ; Book Humayu-nama= by Gulbadan ( Half sister)

Akbar = 1542 = born Amarkot ; 1556 ( II battle of Panipat). Bairam Khan was commander.Beats Hemu (Vikramditya) who was General of Adil Shah ( WB)

Nurjahan = Real name = Mehru Nisa. Mumtaz = Anjuman Bano

Jahangir = Executed G. Arjundev (5th Guru) = Shalimar = Nishat Bagh (Kashmir)

Shahajanha= Khurram = Taj ( 1631 – 1653). Zinda Pir = Davesh = Aurangzeb

  • Million Sq km = Surface of Earth. Country of Lakes & forests = FINLAND = River=Nokia HQ

Guru Hargovind = Army of Sikhs.

Himachal=15 April 1948. Part C State in 1951. In 1956 becomes UT 25 Jan, 1971 Acquires Statehood. ( 1966 Added PB parts)

Edison = wizard of Menlo Park. Hand held Camera = Eastman

Esperanto = Atrifical Language ; Noble gases = 6

1st Heart Transplant, cape Town , SA = Christian Bernard (1967) S. Africa. Washkansky was patient

“    “    “    “ in India > P. Venugopal (1994 AIIMS)

Meghalaya = No. Village Panchayat. 1688 = Madras = First Municipal Corp

Chairman of Union constituent Assembly JC Nehru . GV Mavlanker – 1st L. S. Speaker

Ordinance Art. 123 . High Court = Election Disputes Verdict

Rihand Project = Son River ; Ukai project = Tapti jayakwadi = Godavari

Delhi Sultanate > SKTSL > Slave , Khilji, Tuglaq, Sayyid and Lodhi ( 1206 – 1526)

1739 = Nadir Shah (Peacock Throne and Kohinoor taken,Got back by Maharaj Ranjit Singh)

1793 = Permanent Settlement. 1398 = Taimur Lang in Delhi

Pearl City = Hydarabad= Musi River=Pearl City=Hussain Sagar Lake=Golkonda Fort=Nehru Planetarium=Salar Jung Museum

Khetri , RJ = Cu : Rock Phosphate = RJ = Fertiliser

Oldest Coal Field =  Raniganj  ( WB ) ( Rani = Purani)

Nearby Oil Refineries = Mathura, Bhatinda and Manali in HP

Manchester of South India =  Coimbatore

Aluminium plot of HINDALCO = Renukoot. Haridwar = Heavy Machinery ( H – H ) + Ranchi Also

Varanasi = Locomotives ( Rail) of Diesel. Railway Coach Factory = Kapurthala

Muzzafarnagar (UP)= Sugar : Muzaffarpur (BH) = Litchi

Nhava Shava = Port @ Mumbai. Chennai / Madars = Artificial Port = Marina Beach IND Largest

Konkam Railway connects: Goa &  Mangalore. 4096 = longest Boder and Bangladesh

4286 km = Vivek Express= Dibrugarh 2 Kanyakumari. WB = 1102 = State and population density

(IND) literacy = 74.04% in 2011( 1st 1871-72 Census). Year of Great divide + 1921 Population

High ST Population : MP also high under forst area. High SC Population = UP, = High Irking Area = High population

A&N= ONGE = Negroids. Sikkim = Least population State. Census 2011 Slogan = Our Census, our future

Mishmi = Arunachal Pradesh ( MAP). Shrimp Capital = Nellore (AP)

Mumbai = 2 Railway HQs. Kunal-Kudam = Chennai = Russian Collaboration

Jaithapur Nuclear Reactors ( MH + Areva,French company ( 1650 mw. X 6)

Mahi River = Falls in Gulf of Khambat. Thorium – IND 1st – ( Monazite) found in Kerela coast

Smallest Dist= Mahe : Kachchh Dist. = largest in Area.

Nagaland = Eng Official language. BOD Means = High Organisms = High Pollution

Pyramid & Energy is always UP-right. Red Data book = IUCN = ENDANGERED Species.

Ramsar Convention =   Wetlands 1971. ECOTONE = Transition zone bet 2 ecosystem

Arsenic Toxicity = Bengal Basin. Heavy Metal pollution = Domestic sewerage

Oil Zapper : Remediation of oil spill in ocean 1984, Bhopal Gas Trasady = MIC ( Union Carbide) Mthyl Iso-cya-nate

1989, Helsinki Declaration = ozone layer protection. (Finland) + Vienna convention

CERES Principle = voluntary Environmental standard. Boeing = USA : Airbus = French, Toulouse

Cataract because of UV radiation. Rotterdam conference = hazardous Chemicals Elimination.

Kyoto Protocol = Carbon Credit Concept. GHG Gases = Max. Emitted by = AGRI.

Green Climate Fund = Concern = ( S. Korea). UNFCCC = 1992 = Earth Summit = Rio Summit

In 1996 , World Food Summit, FAO. Project Tiger = 1973 , 1992 = Elephant, 2011 Haathi mere saathi

UNEP = 1972= Nairobi ( Kenya) ( UN Environment Project). 1971 = UNESCO = Man and Biosphere prog.

5 June = Environment Day. Olive Ridley Turtles = Orissa Coast = Bhitarkanika

Lemur @ Madagascar  ONLY ( Endemic Species). Majuli Longest River Island in India in Assam.

Kaimur Wildlife sanctuary = Bihar. Mountain Railways in IND = 5

1909 – Minto morley = Separate Electorate. 1919 – Montague Chelmsford = Diarchy.

1773 – Regulating Act, 1784 = Pitts Act Supreme Court of IND. 1828 – Ant sati ( W. Bentick) 1856 – widow remarriage I.C. Vidya Sagar

Go I Act, 1935 = Charter of Slavery = Nehru. 26 Nov, 1949 – Constitution Completed ( 2,11,18) Dec, 1946

Governor Gen was given residency powers. 1929 – Mn roy ( Idea of constituent Assembly) = he introduced communist

Members in drafting committee= 7. USA = Federation = 1st constitution of World. INDIA = Union of states

Art. 112 = AFS (Budget). Annual Financial Statement. Finance Comm. = 280

22 July, 1947 = Flag adopted = by constituent Assembly. Rupees Sign = D. Uday Kumar (IIT Bombay)

M.S. Subbalaxmi = Sang @ 15 Aug. 1947 = Central Assembly. Jan-Gan-Man= 27 Dec 1911 – Calcutta. (RN Tagore 1913). 24 Jan 1950, Adopted

National Calendar (1 March – 28 Feb). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity = France = Included in Indian preamble.

1688 – Glorious Revolution, 1789 – French Revolution. 1750 – Industrial Revolution

Keshav Nand Bharti case: Life and liberty cannot be suspended (SC)

MMS – Minena Mill case – Secular – No Religion of Govt. Andhra – 1953 = 1st State on linguistic base. Treaty of Versailles. = 1919 = WWI

Writ = Enforcement of Funda. Rights by SC. Habeas corpus – Against illegal detention. Mandamus: on public office

Certiorari – lower court. NHRC, Chairman : CJI of India ( Retd.). Equality (14) > no discretion > opportunity > untouch-ability

Directive principles ( 36-51) Fund. Duties in constitution : record by Swaram Singh committee, 42 Amendment in 1976. ( Socialistic + Secular) Were Added (S-S-S)

Impeachment ¼ members of RS or LS regd. For initiation and 2/3 for impeachment

F.A. Ahmed – was president @ Emergency in 1975

IV A– Fundamental Duties. Part V = Supreme and high court

Consecutive 2 Times Vice prier – Dr. S. Radhdakrishnan

Council of Minister = Responsible to L.S. Anti Defection = Rajiv Gandhi = Art. 102 and 191 (52th Amendment 1985)

Parliament attack – 13 Dec, 2001. Japan parliament – Diet

Attorney Central – Can be invited to speech. CAG – Cannot speak

Zero hour = 1 hour = IMP matters. 1971 census is basis of L>S. Seats Applicable till 2026)

Art. 105 – privilages and Immunities. Finance bill = Revenue Collection. Arabian Peninsula = Biggest

16 Aug, 1946 = Direct Actions day, by MA Jinnah. 1946 – Navy Mutiny = Cabinet Mission

1906 – Muslim League = Aga Khan. Jan Sangh = Shyma Prasad Mukherjee

RSS – 1925 – Sh. Hegdewar. Indus Valley = Neolithic Age. 712 AD – M hd. Bin Kasim = Attacked Sindh. Shivaji Maharaj’s son = Raja Ram (Shivji + Ram)

Nana Sahib = Balaji Baji Rao. Gul Khan = Killed Guru Gobind Singh (1708) – Khalsa= 132 April 1699

Todar System = Todar mal= Measurement. 2/6 Sardesh Mukhi Tax and Chanth ¼ = Shivaji

Buddha = Light of Asia. 1875 = Arya Samaj = Dayanand Sarsvati ( MUL Shakar)

Jatak = 550 Stories. 1932 Gandhi = Harijan Singh = Communal Award Ramsay Mc Donald)

Sarv Siksha Abhiyam 9SSA) 65.35%. H2O is max density @ 40 C

1934 – Planned Economy for IND – M.Vishveveraya. Kathopanished = Dialogue Between Nachiketa and Yam.

SAARC HQ = Kathmandu ( Nepal). Optical Fibre = Narinder kapany. Potato is modified STEM. Asiatic Society – William Jones = Translated Gita to Eng.

1962 – TBP, 1963 – CBI. Portugese = Pondicherry (1st in india, 2nd Dutch, Eng & then French)

1498 – Portuguese. 1600- Eng. 1602 – Dutch. 1616 – Davish. 1664 – French-1644 – St. George Fort ( Eng.) Madras

Budget – Deptt. of Econ Affairs . 1 Barrel = 159 lit.

Bramhagupt = Gravity Discovered. Swami Ramanand had bhakti Saints as disciples

1927 – Simon Comm.  Sarvoday Samaj = Binova Bhave = Bhoodan Movement = 1st Individual Satya Grahi

Jhumar Dance – Haryana ; Thali Dance – HP. V.D. Savankar – Abhinav Bharat (1857 – called 1st war if Independence)

Barak Valley – Assam = Jute. 1952 – Family planning – Community Dev. Prog.

Asia > Africa > N. America. 29%      20%        16.3%

1 Astronomical Unit = 150 km ( million) = Distance between Sun & Earth. Light year = 9.46 x 1012 km

Washing Machine – Centrifugal force. Sn and Pb are used in Soldering

Cu+ Zn + Ni = German Silver. ZnO – Philosophers’ Wool. Meta-statis – spreading of Cancer Calls

Satluj enters @ Shipkila. 1954 = French = Dadra and N. Haveli

1st = Nuclear Reactor  Apsara. Jahangir = had installed a Chain of Justice

Prem Chand = Dhanpat Rai (karbala,Singram, Prem ki Bedi, Rangbhoomi, Karambhoomi, Goodan). Rubayiaat = Omar Khayyam.

Conquest of self = Gandhi. Annual Fin. Statement is laid before ( RS & LS) by President

Privilege motion Against minister = if Misleads / with-holds info.

R.S. can with hold finance bill by = 14 days R.S. Deputy Chairman = Elected by RS members.

Art. 243 = Municipalities; 1993 provision for Panchayats, Municipal

PIL = Non plaintiff (Complement) or defendant required.

2015-20 = 14 Finance Commission = YV Reddy. State centre Finance and Taxes

Phillips curve = Unemployment is inverse of inflation

Engels law: If income increases, then % Expenses on food goes down. Gini coefficient = measure of income disparity

Household Sector = High in Gross Domestic Savings. E – Choupal ( Electronic) : launched by ITC

Orissa has High poverty %. R.K. Shanmukham Chetty = 1st Budget of IND

B.N. Sri Krishna = 6th pay commission. 12 FYP starts in 2012 (12)

Green Vitriol = FE So4 7H2O. Blue Vitriol = Cu So4 5 H2O

Photoperiodism – Gardner and allured. Election Microscope : Knoll and Ruska. Stress = Force / Area

Hydraulic Brakes = Pascal law. An object between = Parallel Minor = infinite images

Soap Bubble = Multiple Refraction and Dispersion. C = F @ (-40)   C/5 =

Detergents reduce surface tension. DYSLEXIA = Normal vision but can’t READ

PV = nRT ( Wan Der Waals forces)

HF is used for Glass itching

Reducing Agent > Donates electron & adding H

Lichens = (Algae and fungi association)

Cloves = flower bid. Ranikhet Disease > Cattle’s Disease

SAARC > 8 Dec, 1985, Kathmandu.Rainbow Refraction and total Internal Reflection

NAARD : Sivanaman Committee. SEBI = 1988. Stagflation = Inflation and depression

Budhcharit = Ashvagosh. Amrit Bazaar patrika = Sishir kr. Gosh

Tilak = father of Indian unrest = ( Valentive Chirol). Plato of Jats = Surajmal. Napier = LOG ; Newton = Calculus ; Quantum Theory = Max plamek : Neutron = Chadwick

LASER = T H Maiman. ; Oppenheimer  Atom bomb

DDT = Zeidler ; heavy water = urey ( Project Manhattan)

US Nuclear bombs for JPN= Little boy & Fat Man

1957 = Sputnik ( USSR) in space. 1 HP = 746 walls ; Virus = Ivaonsky

Mutation Theory = Hugo De Vries. Blood Group : Landsteiner

Rectifier : Converts AC to DC. Green Revolution = Pamtnagar = UK = Agriuniv ( 1st of IND 1960)

Bombay Plan = Tata and Birla Groups ( For Econ. Dev.)

3rd FYP  = Gadgil Plan ( 1st = Harrod damor 2nd = Mahalanobis 3rd Gadgil Plan)

Sarvodya Plan = JAI Prakash Narayan.  People’s Plan = M N Roy. 12 yp = Faster , Sustainable and more inclusive growth

Rolling Plan concept ( 1978) = Gunnar Myrdal. Final Authority on FYP = NDC ( National Develop. Council)

Thermal/Coal = High (75% in IND). Railways = Eam Most by goods/ Material

IAY = Indira Awas yojana ( Centre : 75%, State = 25%). 2nd FYP = Heavy Industries ; 1st = Agri/ erring / projects

3rd FYP = HYVP = Green Revolution. PDS = 1965 = FCI ; ( Buy price = Procurement Price ; Selling Price issue price)

TPDS = 1997 ( APL/BPL). NAIS = 1999 ; KCC – 1998 ; Kisan Call Centre 18001801551

NAFED = Pulses, Oil and Onion ( Procurement and selling). National Seed Policy = 2002

NFSM > national food security mission. (2007-08). CONCUR = Container corporation of India = Railways

Corus > Acquired by TATA. Mittal steel acquired > Arcelor

POSCO = s. Korea = Steal project @ Orissa 50,000 crore. Agamal = Vendanta Group = Aluminium etc.

ASIA 1st export processing Zone @ KANDLA, GJ. Temzing gastno = Dalai Lama = 1959 came to India

MNRE95 = Food for work prog. Added.      TRYSEM = 1979, NREP – 1980, SGSY = 1999

NHRM = 2005. FEMA replace FERA = import / export central. NIKKEI – Tokyo Exchange

Dow Jones – USA, SENSEX ( BSE). 1805 – Traflgar War  Nelson. 480 BC – Thermopylae War ( Leonides VS Xerxes)

1455 – 1485 – War of roses. 1750 – Industrial Revolution

1688- Glorious Revolution ( Bloodless). 1789 – French Revolution. 1852 mts. – 1 nautical Mile

Source: Prof. Abhishek Chauhan (compiled Notes)

 

Continent Density person/sq. km
Asia 108
Europe 101
South America 21
Africa 20
North America 14
Oceania 3

 

Rank Country Area (lakh sq km)
1. Russia 170
2. Canada 99
3. United States 96
4. China 95
5. Brazil 85
6. Australia 76
7.         India 32
8. Argentina 27
9. Kazakhstan 27
10. Sudan 25

 

S.N Country Population
in million
1 China 1,306
2 India 1,080
3 United States 295
4 Indonesia 241
5 Brazil 186
6 Pakistan 162
7 Bangladesh 144
8 Russia 143
9 Nigeria 128
10 Japan 127

 

 

 

Minerals & Their Largest Producers
1. Graphite Madagascar
2. Gold South Africa, Australia
3. Platinum South Africa, Canada.
4. Chromium South Africa, Russia
5. Diamond South Africa, Republic of Congo & Australia
6. Zinc Canada, Australia
7. Uranium Canada, USA, Australia, Niger, France, South Africa
8. Nickel Canada, Russia, Australia, USA.
9. Coal China, USA, India, Russia
10. Steel China
11. Iron Ore China, Brazil, Australia.

 

12. Cement China
13. Manganese China, South Africa, Australia.
14. Paper Canada
15. Hydro Power Canada, USA, (Norway highest %age User)
16. Tungsten China, Thailand, Korea
17. Asbestos Canada Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
18. Natural Gas Russia, Canada, Algeria, Iran
19. Flax Russia
20. Tantalum Australia
21. Bauxite Australia, Guinea, Jamaica & Brazil.
22. Lead Australia, China, US
23. Cadmium Canada
24. Antimony China
25. Uranium (Reser.) Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa
26. Zirconium Australia Brazil
27. Titanium (Rutile) *Australia*
28. Iron China, Brazil, Australia
29. Copper Chile, United States, Canada, Armenia, Zambia, Zaire
30. Tin China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Malaysia
31. Silver Mexico, Peru, Chile & Poland.
32. Mercury Spain, China, Italy.
33. Sulphur Mexico, USA & Poland
34. Rock Phosphate USA, Peru (Guano).

 

Agricultural Commodities & Their Largest Producer
1. Milk India
2. Coffee Brazil, Vietnam
3. Tobacco China, turkey
4. Pork China
5. Rice (export) Thailand, Vietnam
6. Rice China, India
7. Banana India, Brazil
8. Banana (Export) Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Columbia
9. Maize USA, China
10. Wheat China
11. Cork Portugal
12. Palm Oil Malaysia
13. Fresh Water Fish Russia
14. Barley Germany, Canada, Russia, France
15. Tea (Exporter) Sri Lanka
16. Rubber Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia
17. Paper USA
18. Pulp (Export) Canada
19. Paper (Export) Canada
20. Sugar India, Brazil, Cuba
21. Sugar (Export) Cuba
22. Oil Palm Malaysia, Indonesia
23. Oil Palm (import) India
24. Cotton China, USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan in that order.
25. Cotton (export) USA
26. Mangoes India
27. Manila Hemp (Abaca) Philippines (75%)
28. Raw Silk China, Japan, India, Korea.
29. Tobacco China, USA, India
30. Oranges USA, Brazil
31. Oats Russia
32. Millets India
33. Rye Russia
34. Sorghum USA
35. Pulses India
36. Sugarcane Brazil
37. Tea India, China
38. Dates Iran, Egypt
39. Olives Spain
40. Wine (Exporter) *Algeria*
41. Wine (Producer) Italy, France
42. Coconut Indonesia, Philippines,
43. Grapes Italy, France
44. Potato China
45. Soyabeens U.S.A, Brazil

 

Sobriquets
1. Island of Cloves Zanzibar
2. Land of Lilies Canada
3. Land of Golden Fleece Australia
4. Port of Five Seas Moscow
5. Island of Pearls Bahrain
6. Hermit Kingdom Korea
7. Land of Golden Pagoda Yangoon (Myanmar)
8. City of Canals Venice
9. Holy Land Palestine
10. Herring Pond Atlantic
11. City of Golden Gate Sand Francisco
12. City of dreaming Spires Oxford
13. Land of Canals Netherlands
14. Empire city New York
15. Land of Cakes Scotland
16. Land of Eskimos Greenland
17. Island of Pearls Bahrain
18. Granite City Aberdeen, Scotland
19. Garden of England Kent
20. Cockpit of Europe Belgium

 

21. City of brotherly Love Philadelphia
22. City of Magnificent Distances Washington DC
23. Gateway of tears Bab-el-Mandab
24. Textile Capital of Russia Ivanovo
25. Manchester of Japan Osaka (Textile)
26. Emerald City Ireland
27. The pearl of the Antilles Cuba

Highest Peaks in Various Regions/ Mountain Chains

1. Africa Mt. Kilimanjaro
2. North America Mt. McKinley
3. Europe Mt. Elbrus
4. Antarctica Mt. Vinson
5. Asia Mt. Everest
6. Oceania Mt. Carstensz
7. South America Mt. Aconcagua
8. Australia Mt. Kosciusko
9. Urals Mt. Gora Naradnaya
10. Alps Mt. Mont Blanc
11. Andes Mt. Aconcagua
12. Rockies Mt. Elbert
13. Appalachians Mt. Mitchell
14. South West Asia (Elbruz Chain) Mt. Demavand

 

Important Places/Regions & Their Locations
1. Llanos Tropical Grasslands of Venezuela
2. Campos Tropical grasslands of Brazil
3. Iberian Peninsula Spain
4. Katanga basin Democratic republic of Congo
5. Canterbury Plain Largest lowland area of New Zealand
6. Chaco / Gran Chaco Low, flat, arid region covering Argentina Paraguay &
Bolivia.
7. Kra Peninsula Malaysia
8. Parana region Brazil –Largest producer of wheat, corn cotton
9. Matto grosso Thick jungle in west central brazil north of Bolivia.
10. Dogger bank Shallow fishing area in north sea, 100km off UK
11. Grand bank Shallow fishing area off new foundland, Canada
12. Georges bank Near bay of fundy & Gulf of Maine
13. Nordic Countries Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Denmark.
14. Ob, Yenisey & Lena Major rivers of Russia
15. Sarawak, Sabah, Labuan These three states make up east Malaysia.
16. Yucatan Peninsula Mexico
17. Ozark Plateau heavily forested upland region, between the Missouri and
Arkansas rivers
18. Sinai Peninsula In north eastern Egypt.

 

Tribes of the World
1. Kalmuks Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas – pastoral
2. Kirghiz Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs
3. Gauchos Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay.
4. Mestizos People of mixed white & Indian parentage
5. Ostyaks West Siberian tribe
6. Pygmies Congo basin – Zaire, Congo, Gabon.
7. Boro Amazon basin-sub group of red Indians.
8. Semang Malaysia
9. Papuans New Guinea
10. Bushmen or San Kalahari – Namibia, Botswana, Angola
11. Bedouins Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East
12. Masai East Africa – Kenya, Uganda
13. Kirghiz Central Asia. Muslim by faith
14. Saami or Lapps Norway, Sweden, Finland – Also known as Laplanders
15. Yuti Siberia
16. Chukchi Far Eastern Siberia
17. Yakuts Tundra region of Russia
18. Aleut Aleutian Islands
19. Yuit Siberia
20. Inuit Greenland, Canada & Siberia
21. Samoyed West Siberia
22. Punan Borneo
23. Afrikaner/Boer Dutch race in S. Africa
24. Afridis N. West Pakistan
25. Veddas Racial stock of Sri Lanka
26. Bantus Central & southern Africa – Swahili is Bantu derived language.
27. Berbers Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia
28. Maori New Zealand
29. Bindibu Western Australia
30. Cossacks Russia around black & Caspian Sea
31. Magyar Inhabitants of Hungary
32. Croats Croatia
33. Flemish Belgium
34. Finns European Tundra
35. Hamites N-W Africa – Dark skinned muslims
36. Hottentots/khoi khoi Tropical Africa
37. Kaffris S. Africa – known as martial race
38. Kikuyu Kenya’s most populous ethnic group
39. Masuds Waziristan region, Pakistan
40. Mestizos People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America
41. Amerinds N. America – People of mixed European & Indian blood
42. Mulatto Mixed European & black blood in South America
43. Moors Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco
43. Semites Jews & Ethiopians
44. Tartar Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia
45. Zambas People of African & Native American Indian in S. America
46. Zulus People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa
47. Akka Democratic republic of Congo
48. Oromo or Galla African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya
49. Uygur Turkic people inhabiting N-W china & Kazakhstan.
50. Kubu Inhabitants of Sumatra
51. Fulani/Fula Cattle herders of Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea or Chad
52. Buryat Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic.
53. Aeta Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous)
54. Ainu Caucasoids of Japan.
55. Yanomamo Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela

 

Minerals & Their Ores
1. Iron Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe304), limonite & Siderite
2. Nickel Millerite, Pentlandite
3. Manganese Pyrolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane
4. Antimony Stibnite
5. Titanium Rutile
6. Chromium Chromite
7. Uranium Pitchblende (UO2)
8. Lead Galena
9. Thorium Thorianite, Monazite, Allanite, Ilemnite
10. Zinc Calamine, Sphalerite
11. Mercury Cinnabar
12. Beryllium Beryl, chrysoberyl
13. Cobalt Smalitite, Cobaltite
14. Lithium Spodumene
15. Magnesium Magnesite, Dolomite, Kieserite, Carnallite.
16. Potassium Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O)
17. Silver Argentite
18. Sodium Chile Saltpeter (NaNO3)
19. Tin Cassiterite

 

Major Discontinuities within the earth
1. Conrad Discontinuity Between outer & inner crust
2. Mohorovicic Discontinuity Between crust & mantle
3. Repetti Discontinuity Between outer & inner mantle
4. Weichart-Gutenberg Discontinuity Between mantle & core
5. Lehmann Discontinuity Between outer & inner core.

 

Important Isopleths
1. Isogones Equal magnetic declination
2. Isohel Equal amount of sunlight.
3. Isobront Thunderstorm at the same time
4. Isocheim Same mean winter temperature
5. Isothere Same mean summer temperature
6. Isanomal Isopleth of Anomaly
7. Isochrones Equal travel time from a common center.
8. Isohypse Or Contour lines
9. Isonif Amount of Snow
10. Isophene Isopleths of seasonal phenomena
11. Isopotential Surface to which artesian water can rise
12. Isorymes Equal frost
13. Isarithm A line representing continuous value on map
14. Isonephs Equal cloudiness
15. Co-seismal lines Simultaneous seismic activity
16. Isohypse Or contours
17. Isopach Equal thickness of geological strata
18. Isotach Same wind speed
19. Isotherombrose Equal ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall
20. Isochasm Equal frequency of aurorae
21. Isodynamic Equal magnetic intensity
22. Isogen Equal birthrates
23. Isokeraunic Equal occurrence of thunderstorms

 

Places & Their Importance
1. Yorkshire woollen textile
2. Lancashire cotton textile
3. Glasgow ship building
4. Sheffield Cutlery & steel works
5. Lorraine Iron ore (France)
6. Lyon Silk Industry (France)
7. Silesia Coal (Poland) – high grade
8. Lodz Manchester of Poland
9. Hamburg Ship Building (Germany)
10. Stuttgart Automobile (Germany)
11. Munich Instruments (Germany)
12. Karl Marx Stadt Textile (Germany)
13. Sambre-Meuse Coal (Belgium)
14. Marseilles Oil Refinery
15. Baku Capital city of Azerbaijan & chief refining center.
16. Chicago Biggest railway junction
17. Detroit Automobile
18. Seattle Aircraft
19. Cadiz Cork (Spain)
20. Changchun Automobile & machine tools (China)
21. Chelyabinsk Iron & Steel (Russia)
22. Dresden Optical, Photo & Graphic instruments (Germany)
23. Dusseldorf Iron & Steel (Germany)
24. Essen Iron & Steel (Germany)
25. Essex Engineering works (England)
26. Kharkov Machine building & Engineering (Ukraine)
27. Kiev Engineering (Ukraine)
28. Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (Russia)
29. Nagoya Cotton & Ship building (Japan)
30. Nizhny Tagil Iron & Steel (Russia)
31. Venice Glass Industry
32. Vienna Glass Industry
33. Philadelphia Locomotives (USA)
34. Plymouth Shipbuilding (USA)
35. Yenang Yang Oil Drilling (Myanmar)
36. Gorky / Nizhny Novogorod Engineering Industry.
37. Belfast Ship building (Ireland)

Major Natural Regions

1. Equatorial Lowland Amazon Type
2. Equatorial Highland Malay Type
3. Equatorial High Plateaus Ecuador Type
4. Tropical Eastern Margin Monsoon Type
5. Tropical Interiors Sudan Type
6. Tropical Western Deserts Sahara Type
7. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Western Margins Mediterranean Type
8. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Eastern Margin China Type
9. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Lowland Turan Type
10. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Plateau Iran Type
11. Cool Temperate Western Margin European Type
12. Cool Temperate Eastern Margin St. Lawrence Type
13. Cool Temperate Interior Lowland Prairie Type
14. Cool Temperate Interior Highland Altai Type
15. Cool Temperate High Plateau Tibet Type
16. Polar Lowland Tundra Type
17. Polar Highland Ice Cap Type

 

Major Deserts
S. Desert Location
1. Sahara Northern Africa
2. Gobi Mongolia/Northeastern China
3. Patagonian Argentina
4. Rub‘ Al Khali Southern Arabian Peninsula
5. Great Sandy Northwestern Australia
6. Great Victoria Southwestern Australia
7. Chihuahuan Mexico/Southwestern United States
8. Takla Makan Northern China
9. Sonoran Mexico/Southwestern United States
10. Kalahari Southwestern Africa
11. Kyzyl Kum Uzbekistan
12. Thar India/Pakistan
13. Simpson Australia
14. Mohave Southwestern United States
15. Nafud Desert Arabian Peninsula
16. Dasht-I-Kavir Iran

 

Planets & satellites
1. Mars Deimos, Phobos
2. Jupiter Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Io
3. Saturn Titan, Tethys, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione
4. Uranus Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel
5. Neptune Triton
6. Pluto Charon

 

Highest Waterfalls of the World
Waterfall Location Total drop (m)
Angel Falls Venezuela 979
Yosemite Falls United States 739
Mardalsfossen-South Norway 655
Thukela (Tugela) Falls South Africa 614
Cuquenan Venezuela 610
Sutherland New Zealand 580
Worlds Largest Lakes
1. Caspian Sea, Asia
2. Lake Superior North America
3. Lake Victoria Africa
4. Lake Huron North America
5. Lake Michigan North America
6. Lake Tanganyika Burundi (N), Zambia (S), DMC (W)
7. Great Bear Lake North America
8. Lake Baikal Asia
9. Aral Sea Asia
10. Great Slave Lake North America

 Tables’s Source: G. Tori

 

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