General Studies Revision Power Shots
- 1854, Wood’s Dispatch is called Magna Carta of Education in India.
- 1921=Year of Great Divide in India and is linked with Population Decline.
Musi River @ Hyderabad: Nehru Zoo, Golkonda fort, Charminar & Salar Jang Museum
- 16 October (1945) Bengal was Partitioned. This day is also celebrated as World Food Day.
- Willy-Willy It is a West Australian Cyclone. Variant names given to the same type of storm in other areas of the world include typhoon (western Pacific, eastern Asia), cyclone(Indian Ocean), willy willy (Australia), and baguio (China Sea).
- 1907 Surat Split: in extremists & moderates (S_S_S_S : Seven-Surat-Split-Sardar). Sardar Bhagat Singh was born in this year
- S.M.I.(Layers of Atmosphere) Troposphere(weather)>Stratosphere(O3,Planes)>Mesosphere> Ionosphere(Radio Signals).
- Dandi March (12 March 1930 -6 April)
- Indonesia comprises of 14,000 Island. It was formerly called Indian Archipelago
- Victoria Falls: Zambezi River. Victoria Falls is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe.
- 4 February is Cancer Day , World Cancer * 15 March is Consumers Rights Day
- 12 January is celebrated as National Youth Dayis celebrated in India on 12 January on the birthday of Swami Vivekananda.
- Tribals of Andaman and Nicobar are known as ONGE (Negroids).
- Tehri Dam, Uttrakhand is the Highest Dam in India on Bhagirathi river.
- Mettur Dam (Tamil Nadu) is on Cauvery River.
- Southern Rivers, sequence from north to south (Mahanadi>Godawari>Krishna>Kauvery>Vaigi) : *Mahatma Gandhi Krishi Ka Vidyalya (MGKKV)
- Aravalli Mountains are the oldest mountains in INDIA (approx. 370 Million years old).
- Joint Sitting of RS and LS is under Article 108
- In between 9-23 Dec. 1946, 1st Session of Constituent Assembly was held. At 11:00 am, in New Delhi, the first Constituent Assembly of India convened, with 323 of the 389 members present. Boycotting the session were the 76 Muslim League members.
- Directive Principles have been taken from Ireland. These provisions, contained in Part IV(Article 36-51) of the Constitution of India
- In 1989 the voting age became 18 yrs in INDIA.
- On December 15, 1988, when the Lok Sabha passed the Constitution (Amendment) Bill lowering the voting age to 18 years, it was adopted unanimously.
- Red Data Book has been given by IUCN – ENDANGERED SPECIES.
- NATO was formed in 1949.
- The viceroy of India in 1905 was Lord Curzon. Partition of Bengal
- Cabinet Mission came to India in 1946.
- In 1932 Communal Award was announced by Ramsay McDonald (P.M. of UK).
- President is Supreme Commander as is written in Article 53.
- Electrons were discovered by J.J. Thomson.
- In 1878 Vernacular Press Act was passed by Lord Lytton.
- Netaji Subhash Chander Bose called Gandhi as Father of Nation.Netaji, who in his address on Singapore Radio on July 6, 1944 addressed Gandhi as Father of the Nation.
- The Rotterdam Convention (formally, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade) is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.
- The Kyoto Protocol. Carbon credit proposals have been spearheaded by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as a market-oriented mechanism to slow carbon emissions.
- A Greenhouse Gas (GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect
- The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund established within the framework of the UNFCCC to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
- The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
- 1996, World Food Summit, FAO World Food Summits are convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The World Food Summit took place in Rome, Italy between 13 and 17 November 1996.
- Stages of Matter are Solid , Liquid, Gas ,Plasma, Liquid Crystal
- Conversoin of Celcius in Farheit : C/5=F-32/9 (@ -40, C=F)
- Glass is Amorphous (inconsistent and melt point is slow).
- Crystal: Salt/sand
- Sugar/Diamond Graphite
- He – Remarks GAS- 269˚C and Tungsten Solid are 3370.
- There is no Chemical reaction in Mixture.
- Colloids are 10-9 to 10-6 in Diameter.
- (1.) Liquid – Liquid= EMULSIONS
- (2.) Aero Liquid/mixture of Solid in Gas
- (3.) Sols – Solids in Liquid(paints) (Mist and Smoke)
- Tindal Effect is defined as Scattering of light in disperse phase.
- Avogadro No. is 12g of C12=6.022×1023 atoms/molecules.
- Weight (Atomic) of ion/molecules/atom.
- Morality = Mole/liter Molality=Mole/kg.
- Normality :- 1 mole of H2So4=2H+ions (2 N).Normality is a measure of concentration equal to the gram equivalent weight per liter of solution.
- Charge on electron and proton 1.602×10-19
- In 1896 Radio activity was discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel. First Person to discover evidence of Radio activity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics.
- In 1899 Plum Puddings Model was given by J J Thompson.
- Afbau Principle states that Electron jumps from increase in energy to decrease in energy.
- Hunds Law is linked with pairing of e–(a/s/d/f) 26 to 14. Every orbital in a sub shell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbital’s have the same spin.
- VALENCEY is (+1), if you loose an electron.
- IUPAC à International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
- Temporary hardness is due to Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonates and it can be removed by Boiling and Addition of Lime.
- Calcination is heating in absence of air Ore
- Smelting is a process in which Ore +Coke gives free metal.
- Rusting is due to Hydrated Ferric oxide.
- Galvanization : Iron or steel is coated with zinc to prevent rusting
- ZNCo3 – Calamine ; Azurite – CuCo3 , SnO- Casserite.
- Galena (PbS) It is called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide. It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals.
- Periodic Table is given by Mendeleev, 1869 ; Groups (1-18) vertical.
- Metalloids – Semiconductors, Arsenic, for example, is a metalloid that has the visual appearance of a metal, buy is a poor conductor of electricity; metalloids are generally semiconductors. The elements classified as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium.
- Oxygen Hydride – H2O (water)
- Atomic Number – Number of Protons in the nucleus of an atom, which is characteristic of a chemical element and determines its place in the periodic table.
- Non metal ions (-H) gain e– to become –ve.
- 1916 – Valence theory – Lewis (6front and bondside).
- Cobalt 60 à Converts 2 Nickel. It is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years. It is produced artificially in nuclear reactors.
- Amalgam – Alloy with mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury. These alloys are formed through metallic bonding.
- Gold Extraction Processà MacArthur – Forest process (also known as cyanide process
- Actinide – 14 elements (Most Radioactive. All actinides are radioactive and release energy upon radioactive decay; naturally occurring uranium and thorium, and synthetically produced plutonium are the most abundant actinides on Earth.
- Le Chatelier’s – Chemical Equilibrium. Also called ‘The Equilibrium Law’, can be used predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. It state that : When any system at equilibrium is subjected to change in concentration, temperature, volume, or pressure, then the system readjusts itself to partly counteract the effect of the applied change and a new equilibrium is established.
- E-Coli (Escherichia-Coli)àProduces human insulin. E-Coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coli form bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.
- Group O – Noble gases. The six noble gases that occur naturally are Helium(He), Neon(Ne), Argon(Ar), krypton(Kr), Xenon(Xe), and radioactive Radon(Rn).
- Carbonyl – CHO and CO. In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
- FISHER TROPSHà Water gas + CO+H2 steam over heated cooled.
- Enthalpy is the measure of energy stored in BONDS.
- Coal – Anthracite (95%), Butiminious (70%) , Lignite(40%) , Peat(20%)
- Saturation à Saturation Hydrogen and Carbon molecule by H.
- When more C=C is there they are decrease saturated.
- Mercaptan – Warning agent in GAS. “Ethyl Mercaptan” is a colorless or yellowish liquid or a gas with a pungent, garlic or skunk-like odor. It is used as an additive to odorless gases like butane, propane, and petroleum to give them a warning odor.”
- 1 Mole of glucose = 673 Kcal Energy.
- MONO-SAC – Ribose, Glucose and Fructose.
- Di-MONOSAC – ,
- Poly – Stach , Glycogen.
- In 1865 August kekule gave Benzene structure.
- 4n+2 configuration for Benzene like substances.
- Mordant’s à Helps Dye to fix.
- Benzene Coal
- DNA – Wilkins and Franklin à X-ray diffraction pictures. These four Scientists – Watson, Crick, Franklin, and Wilkins – co discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, which formed the basis for modern biotechnology. At King’s College London, Rosalind Franklin obtained images of DNA using X-ray Crystallography.
- Isoprene – Unit of rubber (N) – C5H Isoprene is produced by many plants, and its polymers are the main component of natural rubber.
- Monomers – Unit of rubber (Artificial). Its main purpose was to develop the new commercial methods of monomers for synthetic rubber production within the shortest possible time.
- Ceramics – Strong directional bonds.“The high energy of covalent bonds makes these ceramics very stable with regard to chemical and thermal changes. Unlike ionic and metallic bonding, covalent bonding is directional and as a result, the atoms in many covalently bonded ceramics are arranged symmetrically to give a highly ordered structure.”
- Smelting – Ore Pure Metal + Red Agent + Oxygen. (Pig Iron, Cu(copper), Pb(lead), Ni(nickel). Smelting is the process of applying heat to ore to melt out a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy.
- Soaps – alkali salts of higher fatty (Coo+Na–).
- Acids viz. Stearic, Palmitic and Oleic acids.
- Na(Sodium) Soaps – Hard ; K(Potassium) Soaps – Soft.
- Saponification –Fat/Oil react with NaOH(Sodium hydroxide) Or KOH(Potassium hydroxide)
- Soap + Glycerol.
- Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. When triglycerides in fat/oil react with aqueous NaOH or KOH, they are converted into soap and glycerol. This is called alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Since this reaction leads to the formation of soap, It is Saponification.
- Glass is made from (Alkali Silicate + Silicate of Base). Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
- Cullet is recycled broken or waste glass used in glass-making.
- Synthetic Detergents are Sodium salts of long chains benzene sulphonic acids Or Na salts of long chains Alkyl hydrogen Sulphates.
- Glass formula is Na2CaO.6SiO2 (Glass is a super cooled liquid. One of its unique properties is that it is transparent.)
- Crookes Glass à In this glass mainly cerium oxide(CiO2) is present which sharply absorbs the ultraviolet rays form the sunlight so utilized in making lenses of eye glasses. àWilliam Crookes
- Antioxidants à Prevent rancidity in oils+ fats. Antioxidants are often used as preservatives in fat-containing foods to delay the onset or slow the development of rancidity die to oxidation. Natural antioxidants include ascorbic acid(vitamin C) and tocopherols(vitamin E).
- Portland Cement àCaO(calcium oxide)(63%), SiO2(Silicon dioxide)(21%), MgO(magnesium)(1.5%), Fe2O3(iron oxide)(3%), SO3(sulfate)(5%).
- Porland cement gets its strength from chemical reactions between the cement and water. The process is known as hydration.
- Last Mauraya à Brihadratha, the last ruler of the Maurayan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor Ashoka.
- Philospher Wool à Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
- Parts of constitution
|I||1-4||The Union & its Territories|
|IV||36-51||Directive Principles of State Policy|
|IV A||51A||Fundamental Duties (42nd Amendment)|
|V||52-151||The Union Government|
|VI||152-237||The State Government|
|VII||238||Dealt with states in Part B of the First Schedule. Repealed in 1956 by the Seventh Amendment.|
|VIII||239-241||Union Territories. Article 242 repealed.|
|IX||243 A-O||The Panchayats.|
|IX -A||243 P-ZG||The Muncipalities.|
|X||244-244 A||The Scheduled & Tribal Areas.|
|XI||245-263||Relations between the Union & the States.|
|XII||264-300 A||Finance, Property, Contracts & Sates.|
|XIII||301-307||Trade, Commerce & Intercourse within the territory of India.|
|XIV||308-323||Service under the Union & the States.|
|XIV A||323A-232B||Administrative Tribunals (42nd Amendment 1976)|
|XVI||330-342||Special Provisions (Reservations of SC, ST, Anglo Indian etc)|
|XIX||361-367||Miscellaneous Provisions(Immunity of President, Legislature etc)|
|XX||368||Amendment of the Constitution.|
|XXI||369-392||Temporary, Transitional & Special Provision.|
|XXII||393-395||Short Title, Commencement, Authoritative.|
- 22 Parts of Constitution given by Hemant Pratap Singh. World’s lengthiest written constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement. Now Constitution of India has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules.
- In 1905 Gopal Krishna Gokhale ‘The Servants of India’ Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905.
- 1st Speaker of Lok Sabha Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar popularly known as Dadasaheb.
- Dalai Lama, The Universe in a Single Atom is a book by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama and published in 2006
- Shivalik mountains also known as MANIK Mountain.
- 1956 HP Territorial Council The first HP Territorial Council was formed in the year 1956. In November 1, 1966 he Hilly areas of Punjab were included Himachal Pradesh.
- 1st Governor of HP à S. Chakravarti.
- Satluj is also known as Red River. In the Mahabharata, the river is named the Satadree. It is also known as the Red river.
- Paper à Vande Mataram— C. Pal. Article 17=Untouchability
- My Country My Lifeà K. Advani. It is an autobiographical book by L.K.Advani, an Indian politician who served as the Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004.
- Aurthur Wellesley killed Tipu Sultan (4th Anglo-Mysore War @ Srirangapatnam) & later captured Napoleon in waterloo, Belgium. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, served twice as British PM. He defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. His elder brother Robert Wellesley was then Gov. Gen of India
- Neel Darpan à Dinabandhu Mitra in 1858-1859. Play was published from Dhaka 1860.
- 1878 – Vernacular Press à In British India, law enacted in 1878 to curtail the freedom of the Indian-language press.
- Buddhaà Birth place is Lumbini 560-480BC.
- Buddha 1st Sermon: Sarnath at the Mulagandhakuti
- Buddha Died at Kushinagar
- 29 August à National Sports Day. This day marks the Birthday of Major Dhyan Chand, The hockey player who won gold medals in Olympics for India in the years 1928, 1934 and 1936. He scored over 400 goals in his career, from 1926 to 1948.
- Ban Bhatt wrote Harshacharita & Kadambari. He was a 7th century Sanskrit prose writer and poet of India.
- Sangam Ageà Tamil Poems. Sangam was the ancient academy, which enabled Tamil poets and authors to gather periodically to publish their work.
- Satyamev Jayate à Satyamev Jayate is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Following the independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India on 26 January 1950.
- Brahmgupta gave Law of Gravitation, he was a 6th century Indian mathematician & astronomer.
- Hathigumpha inscription- From the Archaeological Survey of India Collections, taken by William Henry Cornish in c.1892. Hathigumpha inscription of King Kharavela @ Udayagiri Hills.
- Lexicographerà Amarasimha was a Sanskrit grammarian and poet of whose personal history hardly anything is known. He is said to have been ‘one of the nine gems that adorned the throne of Vikramaditya’.
- Anguttara Nikayaà Buddhist Scripture. The fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the “three baskets that comprise the Pali Tipitaka of Theravada Buddhism.
- Harsha Vardhana à Ratnavali, Priyadarsika, Nagananda. He was an Indian Emperor, who ruled over the northern parts of India for a period of more than forty years.
- BanabhattaàKadambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Banabhatta in the first half of the 7th century CE, who did not survive to see it through completion.
- Yoga Sutraà Patanjali are 196 Indian sutras. The Yoga Sutras were complied prior to 400CE by Sage Patanjali.
- Partheniumà (Congress Grass) can cause allergic reactions such as dermatitis, hay fever and asthma.
- Endosulfan à Its toxic for food chain
- DDVPà Powerful tool for controlling bed bugs and other structural pests.
- 1875- IMD – Calcuttaà India Meteorological Department Established in 1875
- 1952-CDPà Community Development Programme launched in India 1952. This programme was formulated to provide an administrative framework through which the government might reach to the district, tehsil/taluka and village level.
- Walker à Rent theory of Profit,
- Fe à causes Interveinal chlorosis on young leaves with large veins only remaining green – With extreme deficiencies, young leaves are almost white and may have necrotic tips and margins.
- Preservative – Potassium metabisulfite preservative
- Erosion Types à)Sheet 2.)Rill 3.) Gully.
- Lord Canning(1856-62)à The last Governor General and the first Viceroy. Revolt of 1857; Passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of the East India Company.
- Lord Elgin(1862-63)àBritish Viceroy of India. Died @ Chauntra & Buried @ DSL
- Sir John Lawrence(1864-69)àTelegraphic communication was opened with Europe. High courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865
- Lord Mayo (1869-72)à Earl of Mayo served as 4th Viceroy of India from 12 January 1869 to 8 February 1872. He was the first Governor General to be murdered in office by a Pathan Sher Ali in Port Blair.
- Northbrook (1872-76)à Between 1872 and 1876, India’s Viceroy was Lord Northbrook. The important events during his reign were deposition of Gaikwad of Baroda in 1875, visit of Prince of Wales, Famine in Bihar and Kuka Movement in Punjab
- Lytton (1876-80)àViceroy of India from 1876-1880 used to write poems with the Pen name of Owen Meredith. Vernacular Press Act (1878), in British India, law enacted in 1878 to curtail the freedom of the Indian-language (i.e., non-English) press. Arms act were passed in 1878
- Rippon (1880-1884)à In 1882 Vernacular Press Act was repealed. A Resolution in 1882 set off the institution of local self – Government in India. Hunter commission came in 1882 for the purpose of education reforms.The First factory Act was enacted in 1881. The 1883 Introduction of Ilbert Bill.
- Dufferin(1884-88)à Lord Dufferin served as Governor General of india and Viceroy from 1884 to 1888. During his tenure, the Third Burmese war led to annexation of whole of Burma and Burmese ruler was exiled to India. In 1885, A.O. Hume laid the foundation of Indian National Congress (INC)
- Lansdowne (1888-1894)à Lord Lansdowne served as Governor General and Viceroy of India from 1888 to 1893. During his tenure, Indo-Afghan border(Durand Line) was demarcated. The Indian Council Act, 1892 was enacted and a system of indirect elections started in India
- Lord Elgin(1894-99)à Lord Elgin served as the Governor General and Viceroy from 1894 to 1898. During his regime, the boundaries of China and Siam was demarcated, Anglo-Russian convention was signed (1895)
- Lord Curzonà Served as Governor General and Viceroy of India.Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act 1899.
- MINTO (1905-10)à The Indian Councils Act 1909 or Morley Minto Reforms or Minto-Reforms was passed by British Parliament in 1909 in an attempt to widen the scope of legislative councils, placate the demands of moderates in Indian National Congress and to increase the participation of Indians the governance.
- Lord Hardinge(1910-16)àLord Hardinge served as India’s Viceroy. Partition of Bengal (1911).Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi(1911).Delhi darbar 1911.Departure of Mahatma Gandhi to South Africa.1916 Annie Besant announced Home Rule Movement and a bomb was thrown at him, but he escaped unhurt.
- Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)à Foundation of Women’s University at Poona in 1916. Foundation of Banaras Hindu University at Banaras in 1916.August Declaration (1917) by Montague.
- Lord Reading (1921-26)à Chauri Chaura incident (5th 1922) and the withdrawal of Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi. In 1925 Kakori Train robbery. Foundation of Communist Party of India (1921)
- Lord Irwin (1926-32)àSimon commission visited India in 1928.Jatin Das- Jatindra Nath Das was an Indian died in Lahore jail after a 63 day hunger strike.
- Lord Willington (1931-36)à1932 Communal Award. 1935 The Government of India Act Passed. Which provided for a federal type of constitution.
- Lord Linlithgow (1936-44)à Lord Linlithgow was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1944 and this eight years period was longest reign as Viceroy of India. Foundation of Indian National Army; Cripps mission 1942.1939, 22 Dec. Day of Deliverance was a celebration day marked by Muslim League and others on 22 Dec. 1939 during the Indian Independence movement.
- Lord Wavell (1944-47)à The Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 provided for an interim government and laid down the procedure for the framing of the Indian Constitution
- Charter Actsà1793/1813/1833/1853
- Light of Asia à Lord Buddha.
- Tripitaka is written in à
- Ashokan Eddicts were deciphered first by à James Prinscep.
- Mauryas using materials for minting coins à Gold and copper.
- Ashtadhyayi of Panini the Mahabhashya of Patanjali and the Kashika vrit of Jayaditya deal with à Principles of Grammar
- Controversial part of the treaty of 303BC. à Seleucus gave his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta.
- Ashoka à Priyadashi, Kanishka à Mahendraditya, Kharavela à Kalinga
- Kumaragupta à Vikramaditya
- Mauryan ruler, who was also known by Amitrahata àBindusara
- 1st in India, put forward the theory that earth revolves round the sun wasà Banabhatta
- Rulers ruling North India at the time of Alexander’s invasionà Nanda
- Zero invented by à Aryabhatta
- Centres of Learing Chanakya the famous Chandragupta Maurya was à Nalanda
- Sakabda/Saka Samvata started à 78 AD
- Vikram Samvata à 57 BC
- Kautilya’s Arthashastra deal with à Political Policies
- Mauryan ruler conquered the Deccan àChandragupta
- Most famous educational centre during the period of Mauryan Age à Taksila
- Megasthenes bookà Indica
- Last Mauryan emperor à
- Sanchi Stupa Constructed à
- In ancient India assumed the title Amitraghota à Bindusara
- Charak was the famous court physician of à Harsha
- Dynasties was associated with Gandhara School of art à Chalukyas
- Art style which combines Indian and Greek à Gandhar
- Telugu Translation of the Mahabharata à Nannay and Tikkan.
- Author of famous Allahabad pillar inscription relating to Samudragupta à Harisena
- Kalidas’s works include à Abhigyan Sakuntalam; Meghadootam; Raghuvansa; Malavikagnimitram; Ritusamhava; Kumar Sambhavam.
- Royal emblem used by the Gupta period à Garuda
- Credited with authoring Brihatsambita à Varahamihira
- Prasati à It is an eulogy of a King. Mrichhakatika written à Sudraka
- Harshavardhan was defeated by à Pulakshin II
- Took the title of Vikramaditya à Chandragupta II
- Gupta à Deogarh, Chandella à Khajuraho, Chalukya à Badami, Pallavo à Panamalai
- Silver coins issued by the Guptas were called à
- 1st ruler of Gupta à Last ruler of Gupta à Srivishanu.
- King of the Gupta dynasty called the ‘Napoleon of India’ à Samudragupta
- Sent Hieun-Tsang as an envoy to Harsha’s court à Tai Tsung
- The Nagara Style of architecture Development mostly in à North India
- Ruler of Bengal found the ancient university ‘Vikramshila’ à
- Tamil classical dance form based on à Bharatantyam
- The Pala, Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas fought for control over à
- Turkish general destroys the universities of Nalanda and Vikromsila à Bakhtiyar Khilji.
- Built the Khajuraho Temples à Dilwara temple is located at à Mount Abu
- Temple of Somnath which was destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni was dedicated to Lord à
- Mughal emperor introduced the policy of Sul-i-kulà
- 1556 à Accession of Akbar * 1600 à Grant of Charter to East India Company.
- 1739 à Nadir shah’s capture of Delhi * 1686 à Death of Shivaji
- Gita translated into Persian à Dara Shikoh.
- Maratha tactics of guerilla warfare were borrowed from à Malik Amber.
- Called the Chanakya of Maratha – Nana Pharnadis.
- Coronation of Shibaji took place in the à AD 1674.
- Shivaji was coronated at a place which became its capital à Raigarh
- Mughal General who forced shivaji to sign the treaty of Purandhar in 1665 à Jai Singh.
- Shivaji defeated the Mughals in the battle of à Salhar
- Maratha womenled struggles against of Mugal empire from AD1700 à Tara Bai.
- Victory tower in Chittor constructed by à Rana Kumbha. Victory over Mahmud Khalji 1 of Malwa.
- Founded the city of Hyderabad and built Charminar à Quli Qutab Shah.
- Built the famous Gol Gumboz at Bijapur à Mahmmad Adil Shah
- Ranjit Singh acquired the world famous diamond KOHINOOR from Shah Shuja.
- Sikh Khalsa was founded by à Guru Gobind Singh.
- Stabbed Guru Gobind Singh to death à Gul Khan
- Akbar surrounded chittor fort, who saved it for four months à Jaimal
- Successor of Shivaji à Sambhaji * Brihadeswara Temple à Tamil Nadu
- Oilwara Temple à Rajasthan * Lingaraja Temple à Orissa
- Hampi Group of monuments à Karnataka * ILTUTUMISH à Qutub Minar
- Quli Qutub Shah à Charminar * Sher Shah à Mausoleum at Sasarom
- Akbar à Agra fort * First English ship that came to India à Red Dragon
- Clan of Rajputs who ruled the princely state of Jaipur à
- Greatest Portuguese Governor laid the real foundation of Portuguese power in India à Albuquerque * Columbus @ Amierica 1492
- Introduced cashew nut, pineapple and tobacco in to India à
- Fort St. George (White town), the first English fortress in India was founded at à
- Battle of Wandiwash 1760 à Between English and the French. English won.
- Vasco da Gama discovered the sex-route to India in à 1498
- Sir Thomas Roe have regular attendance at the Mughal court to secure commercial privilege à
- In 1613, English East India Company given permission to set up a factory (trading post) àSurat
- Francisco De Almeida à Portuguese Viceroy in India.
- First Indian native ruler to accept the system, of subsidiary Alliance à Nizam of Hyderabad.
- Successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singhà Kharak Singh
- Guru Mukhi script was introduced by à Guru Angad
- Dyarchy was introduced in India in à 1919
- Father of “Local Self Government” in India à Lord Ripon
- First Governor General of India was appointed in à 1833
- First Governor General of India à Lord William Bentinck
- Queen Victoria Proclamation of India administration under British crown à 1st 1858.
- Pitts India Act 1784 à The Board of control was established to control all civil, military and revenue affairs of the company.
- Government of India Act, 1935 à It introduced provincial autonomy. Proposed a federation of India. And for establishment of a federal court.
- Governor General of Fort William in Bengal (under Regulating Act 1773),à Cornwallis
Governor General of India (under charter Act 1833) à
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay Earl and Marquess of Dalhousie.
- Governor General and Viceroy of India(under Indian councils Act 1858)à
Gibert John Elliot Murray kynynmond earl of Minto
- Governor General and Crown Representative (Under Government of India Act 1935)à Archibald Percival Wavell, Viscount and Earl Wavell.
- In 1834, remarked, “The bones of the cotton weavers are bleaching the plains of India”à Dadabhai Naoroji.
- Railway would become the forerunner of modern industryà Karl Marx.
- First attempt to calculate per capita income of India à Feroz Shah Mehta.
- Theory of economic drain of India during the British ruleà Dadabhai Naoroji.
- “Poverty and the un-British rule in India” authored àDadabhai Naoroji.
- Railway line Between Bombay and Thane laidà1853
- British person admitted the Revolt of 1857 as a National Revolt à Disraeli
- Before the outbreak of Revolt of 1857 at Murut, Mangal Pandey had become a martyr on 29th March, 1857.
He was hanged at à Barrackepore
- Hindu-Muslim unity show at Revolt of 1857. In this instance, we could not play off Mohammadans against Hindu à Atkinson
- Revolt of 1857 as an extension of social progress the English had already initiated à karl Max
- Rebels of 1857 Revolt was killed in the jungles of Nepal was he/sheà Tontiya Tope.
- Governor General of India during the sepoy muting à Lord Canning
- After the Revolt of 1857, the British recruited the soldiers from the à Gurkhas, Sikhs and Punjabis in the north.
- Munda Revolt à Birsa Munda * Koya Rebellion à Tomars Dora
- Patna uprisingà Sambunath Pal * Savara Rebellion à Radhakrishnan Dandsena
- All India Trade union Congress(AITUC) formed in Bombay à 1920
- Kuka Movement was organized by à Guru Ram Singh.
- Munda rose Revolt in à 1899
- All India Harijan Sevak Sangh founded by à Mahatma Gandhi
- The first India factory Act (1881) was passed by à Lord Ripon
- The leader of the Bardoli Satyagraha (1928) was à Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel
- Ahmedabad Texitile Labour Association founded by à Mahatma Gandhi
- The Call of “Back to the Vedas” was given by à Swami Dayanand Saraswati
- “So long as the million live in hunger and ignorance, I hold every man a traitor” who said it à Swami Vivekanand
- According to Dayananda, full of false teaching à Puranas
- Widow Remarriage Association in 1850s founded by à Vishnu Shastri Pandit
- Social reformer’s wife started a girl school at Poona in 1851 à Jyotiba Phule
- Hindu widow Remarriage Act was passed in1856 with efforts of à Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
- News Paper/Journal Founder Editor
Samvad Kaumundi Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Indian Mirror Devendranath Tegore
Amrit Bazar Patrika Sisir kumar Ghosh
The Hindu G S Aiyar and Viraghavohari
- President of the Indian National Congress in 1907 à Dadabhai Naoroji
- Headed a group of Indians gathered at Tashkent to set up a communist party of India in Oct. 1920 à M N Roy
- India attained “Dominion Status” on à 15 Aug. 1947
- ‘Operation Polo’ was related to à Annexation of Hyderabad state by the govt. of India.
- Indian Freedom struggle, Usha Mehta is well known for à Running the Secret Congress Radio in
the wake of Quit India movement.
- An Important aspect of the Cripps mission of 1942 was à
Dominion status every soon after the second world was
- ‘Direct Action Day’ à Hasan Suhrawardy presided over the ‘Direct Action Day’
- Founder of the Muslim League à Nawab Salimullah
- Drafted the constitution of Muslim League, ‘The Green Book’ à Mohammad Ali Jinnah
- Bhula Bhai Desai’s most memorable achievement was his defence of Indian National Army (INA)
personnel at the Red Fort trial towards the ends of à 1946
- Mahatma Gandhi’s remark ‘A post-dated cheque on a crumbling bank’ is regarding the proposal of à Cripss Mission
- The first state in India which was created on linguistic basis is à Andhra Pradesh
- Work the poem, “Subh-e-Azadi” à Faiz Ahmed Faiz
- First mooted the idea of a Constituent assembly to frame a constitution for India à Swaraj Party in 1934.
- B R Ambedkar à Samaj Samta Sangha * Jamna Lal Bajaj à Gandhi Seva Sangha
- Annie Besant à Indian Boy Scouts * Gopal Hari Deshmukh à Punarvivah Mandal
- The lady congress leader who went underground during Quit India movement à Aruna Asaf Ali
- Made an attempt on the life of kings ford à Prafulla Chaki
- Vande Mtaram à Bhikaji Cama * Abhinav Barat à V D Savarkar
- Indian House à A K Dutta * Swadeshi Bandhav Samiti à Shyamji Krishna Verma
- Surya Sen à Raided Chittagong Armoury * Sachin Sanyal à Wrote “Bandi Jiwan”
- Bhagat Singh à Threw bombs in the central legislative Assembly to protest against the passage of Public Safety Bill and the trade dispute bill.
- Chandra Shekhar Azad à Founded Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
- Were hanged in Connection with Kakori train Robbery Case à Ramprasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Singh.
- Chittagong Armoury Raid à Surya Sen * Kakari Conspiracy à Ram Prasad Bismil.
- Lahore conspiracy à Jatin Das * Ghadar Party à Lala Hardayal
- Gave the ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ slogan à Bhagat Singh.
- During the Indian Freedom struggle raised an army called free Indian Legion à Subhosh Candra Bose
- The Chapekar Brothers assassinated two unpopular British officials at Poona à 1897
- V D Savarkar organized the Abhinav Barat a recent society of Revolutionà 1904
- An attempt made on the life of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal à 1907
- Sepoys at Vellore mutinied à 1806 * Sarojini Naidu à Indian National Congress.
- MA Jinnah à Muslim League * Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru à Liberal Party
- V D Savarkar à Hindu Mahasabha * ‘Kesari’ was à A Marathi newspaper(Bal Ganga Dhar)
- All India Muslim league was founded by à Agha Khan
- Discribed B.G.Tilak as the “Father of Indian Unrest” à Valentine Chirol
- A foreign newspaper which in editorial wrote “No country but India and no religion but Hinduism could have given birth to Gandhi” à The New York Times.
- Painted the masterpiece “Hamsa Damyanti” à Amrita Shergil
- The concept of Sampoorna Kranti (Total Revolution) à Jaipraksh Narayan
- Anand Math à Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
- Poverty and Un-British Rule in India à Dadabhai Naoroji
- Author of the book “Glimpses of world History’ à Jawaharlal Nehru
- 1st Woman President of the Congress à Annine Besent
- Considered as the ‘Modern Man’ of India à Raja Ram Mohan Roy
- Muhammaden Anglo Oriental College à
- Rehnumai Mazdayasan Sabha à1851 * All India woman’s conference à 1927
- Indian official secrets Acts à 1904 *
- Ashwini Kumar Dutta à Described Congress as a “Three day tamasha”
- Bipin Chandra Pal à Described Congress as a “begging institution”.
- Lala Lajpat Rai à Congress could not distinguish between begging rights and claiming them.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak à Indians could not achieve any success if we crock once a year like a frog.
- Bardoli à Gujarat * Chauri Chaura à Uttar Pradesh * Yarevada à Maharaashtra
- Noakhali à West Bengal
- Editor Newspaper
Bipin Chandra Pal Vande Mataram
Aurobindo Ghosh New India
Brahmobandhab Upadhyay Comrade
Muhammad Ali Sandhya
Chittagong Armoury Raid Kalpana Dutt
Abhinav Bharat VD Savarkar
Anushilan Samiti Aurobindo Ghosh
Kuka Movement Guru Ram Singh
- 1st Englishmen who translated “Bhagavad Gita’ into Englishà William Jones
- Book Author
The first Indian war of independence à Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Anand Math à Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Life Divine à Rabindranath Tagore
Sadhana à Sri Aurobindo
- Dictator Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge, & genocide associated à Cambadia (Kampuchea)
- Tennis Court Oath associated à French Revolution
- The Russian revolutionaries derived their ideology from the doctrines of à Marx and Lenin.
- Name of the Civilization Modern Area
Mesopotamian Civilization Iraq
Egyptian Civilization Nile Valley
Chiness Civilization China
- The ruler who stated “I am the state” à Louis XIV
- The slogan “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” was actually given by the à French Revolution
- Country did the Industrial Revolution begin in the year 1750 à England
- Authored the declaration of independence (USA)à Thomas Jefferson
- All the classical dances of India have their origin in Bharata’s “Natuashastro”. They have three basic aspects: ‘Nritta’, ‘Nrittya’ and Natya. Garba is a popular folk dance from the state of Gujarat.
- Bhaskarachary’s work ‘Lilavati’ was translated into Persian by à Faizi
- Chola king under whose reign Brihdeshwara temple of Tanjore was constructed à Rajaraja
- About Ajanta Paintings à These belong to the period of 3rd century BC to 7th Century BC.
The theme is concerned with the Budda and Bodhisatva.
- Tomb is placed in the centre of a large garden and resembles as a prototype of the Taj Mahal
- Humayun’s Tomb to Delhi. * Jahangir was a great painter.
- Sites is famous for prehistoric paintings à Bhimbetka (MP)
- “Vedatrayi” Includes à Rigveda, Yajurveda, Somveda
- Author Work
Bankim Chandra Chatterji Anand Math
Michael Madhusudan Das Captive lady
Ravindra Nath Togore Gora, Post Office
Sarojini Naidu The Broken wind, Golden Threshold
- The famous Painting ‘Satyam Shivam Sundaram’ was prepared by à Sivnandan Nautiyal
- Gandhara are which was mainly Buddhist, was profoundly influenced by Hellenistic Art.
Famous for grace and realism this school influenced Mathura school and also Chinese and Japanese Plastic Art.
- Geet Govind, which is a work by Jaidev, is in the language à Sanskrit
- Krishna1, who was a king of Rashtrakuta dynasty, is related to àShiva temple of Ellora
- ‘Kaviraj’ or ‘King of Poets’ was a title of à
- Buland Darwaja à Build by Akbar in 1602 at Fatehpur Sikri
- IN his autobiography Tujuk-i-Jahangir, he claims that he can recognize paintings of various artists.
- The Planet that takes 88 days to make one revolution of the sun is à Mercury
- The International date line passes through à Bering strait
- The time period 15˚ of longitudes account for à 60 min.