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HAS Preparation: free ki advice





Tips for Preparing Prelims & Mains for HAS exam 2017 from Helios Coaching.

  • Less time: prioritize ur subjects
  • GS = Select topics of importance from syllabus: Make questions and answers out of them (Diagram form). Write ur question in single page. Try to make a guess paper of some 150 questions of GS part.
  • Don’t go for hard question now (less time/ Internal choice may be there)
  • HP= can utilize Himachal 180= got selected questions & answers (you can save time)
  • Select essay (100 Marks): GST/Demonetization/synchronous elections/Disaster Management/Brexit/Civil Code/Rohingya crisis/Gorkhaland
  • Careful for Hindi & Eng: do grammar (Phrases), Précis writing need to be one third
  • Make diagrams in questions/essay
  • Don’t go for long essay/answers (time may be lost for other topics/questions)
  • If u short on time go for areas of strength, don’t waste much time on strengthening weak areas.
  • Try to get solved UPSC papers (though level not is that strong)
  • Revise ur notes multiple times



Annual & 6 Monthly Prog.(Regular & SUNDAY Batches)

Areas Covered:

*Prelims (General Studies + Aptitude)*Prelims (General Studies + Aptitude)

*IAS Mains: GS -I, II, III, IV (HAS: GS-I,II,III).ENG+HINDI+ESSAY (Except Optional) + Interview +  Study Material


Regular: Rs. 30,000

Sunday Only : Rs. 15,000

Available @ Solan, Sundernagar, Shimla & Dharamshala

Contact: 9805839716, 9418509103 & 8350874747




Book for HAS, Allied & NT Exam Preparation

Contact: 9882111655, 8350874747 & 9805839716

Salient features of Book:

  • Possibly first book written according to latest syllabus, so much of information is freshly worked out and reader may save time in searching material.

  • Both HAS Prelims. & Mains topics covered so that a complete solution is available.

  • Unnecessary detailed omitted to save time, and not to intimidate readers by size of book.

  • Objectivity is tried, so that every line/paragraph may become a potential question.

  • Research grade material inculcated to give readers an edge over present resources.

  • “Powerpoints” to remember have added after majority of topics.

  • Information put in tables, which could be more interesting to read & remember.





Annual & 6 Monthly Prog.(Regular & SUNDAY Batches)

Areas Covered:

*Prelims (General Studies + Aptitude)*Prelims (General Studies + Aptitude)

*IAS Mains: GS -I, II, III, IV (HAS: GS-I,II,III).ENG+HINDI+ESSAY (Except Optional) + Interview +  Study Material


Annual (Regular): Rs. 50,000

6 Month regular: Rs. 30,000

Sunday Only : Rs. 25,000

(15% Discount for Girls, EWS & Armed Forces personnel or their wards)

Available @ Solan, Sundernagar, Shimla & Dharamshala

Contact: 9805839716, 9418509103 & 8350874747 




Estimate of Question in Prelims (HP Portion)
Question may vary from traditional 20 to even 35 (speculated)
History: 15% Culture: 10% Economic Survey: 20%
Geo: 15% Current: 10% Schemes & Policies: 10%
State Polity: 10% Environment:5% Census:5%
Himachal 360: IMP Topics For rapid run through
Page 23 Kalidas & Tagore Skand Puran: Divisions
Page 24 Archaeological Discoveries All 3 Tables
Page 26 & 27 ALL Skip Additional reading
Page 28 Sikhs: first 5 Persian: Utbi, Batuta, Farishta, Barni, Fazal
Page 29 Numismatics Kols: proto
Page 30 Bold Points
Page 31 to 45 Bold Points, names & dates Power Points: All . Skip Additional reading
Page 46 -66 Bold Points Pl read all pages: Questions can develop
Page  68-69 All Pages
Page 71 Jaswan & Guler: All
Page 72 Dilipranjani, Ram Chand, Man Chand,
Page 73-75 Govardhan Singh, Bhup & Shamsher Power Points
Page 76 Intro, origin & Jhet Pal Kailash, Bhakt Mal, Basu
Page 78, 79 & 80 Full Pages Power Points
Page 83-86 Full Pages
Page 87 & 88 Sahil & Yugankar Varman
Page 89 Salvahan, Lalit, Ganesh & Pratap
Page 90 & 91 Full Pages
Page  92 First 2 Paras
Page  93-95 Raj, Charat, Sri, Sham & Bhuri 97 & 98 Power Points
Page  99 Full Page
Page  100 Bikram, Sahu & Madan
Page  101-102 Shyam Sen 103 Jit & Garur
Page  104, 105, 106, 107 & 109 Full Pages
Page  110-113 Kalyan, Ajbar, Keshav, Hari Suraj, Shyam, sidh, & shamsher
Page  114  Ishwari & Balbir
Page  115-122 Full Pages
Page  123 1,2,3,4,6,8, 10 & 12
Page  124 Keral, Udhran & Kailash
Page  125-127 Full Pages
Page  128 Ajit
Page  135-137 Full Pages
Page  141-145 & 146 Full Pages
Page  147 Meg, Rattan, Gyan & Bikram
Page  148 & 149 Full Page
Page  150, 151, 152 & 153 Devi & Mahan Kharak, Amar, Anand & PP
Page  154, 155 & 159. 160,161 & 163 Full
Page  164 & 165 Karam & Mandhta Subhag, Budh, Mit (Medini) & Dharam
166, 167 & 169 Full
171, 172 Full
173 Beja & Bharoli can be skipped 174: 4,6,7,8 can be skipped
175 Skipped: 10,12 & 13 176: Skip 14, 17 & 18
180, 181 & 182 Full
185 & 187, 188, 189 & 190 Full
191-195 Very selective reading: dates & persons
197, 198, 199 & 200 Kinds of Begar Bardafaroshi, Abolition & PP
201-206, 207 & 208 All
214-215 PP
216-223 Selective reading
224, 225 & 240 (Table)
241-303 General Information, Rankings of GEO features of all districts & PP
304 Full page
305-307 Bold Points
Top 5 peaks & Passes
313-319 Major Rivers & name of tributaries
Year of water Policy & Hydro Policy
323 to 329 Full
330 -332 Top 5 glaciers & glance over names of other.
333, Full Page
335-340 Top & bottom 3 districts
341 (full) 342: Top & bottom 3 districts
344 (national Parks: complete) 345 & 346 (1,10,12,14,15,16,22,24,31 & 32)
347 First Para  353: Shimla Declaration – Dates etc only
352 Full Page
357 History & Vulnerability
360-367 All pages toll cave temples
367 Chaurasi, Adi, Asha & Baijnath Bala Bhalei, Bijli, Bishveshwar
Bhootnath, Brajraj, Champavati Chandika, Chango, Dev Kothi, Dhankar, Ganesh,
Gemur, Hari Rai, Hidimba, Kamksha, Kardang, Katasan, Khajji Lakshmi Narayan, Lakshna Devi,
374 Madho Rai, Mani Mahesh, Mool Mahunag Mrikula, Naina, Narsingh, Piri, Gayatri, shakti, shrigul, Suhi
377 Sun, Tara, Tarna, Triloki, Tripura Tryambkeshwar
378 & 379 Full
380-383 Full
383 Ashapuri, Fattu, Bees, Bishu, Bisova, dumgyur, Gandhi, Hola Mohalla Jagra, Khogla, Labrang, Lakh, Lavi, Losar, MachhayalMamel, Minjar, Namgan, Pathar ka Khel, Pauri, Pir Nigha, Saho
Sippi, Tsechu, Thissur, Sazo, Phagli, Kunjar, Gugga, Kangyur
395 -396 Full + Deepak, Nuala, Jhamakra Bonyangchu, Gar, Dhili Pheti, Lang-Darma
Chhank, Chham, shun, Shabu, Kayad, Loodi, Ghugti, Karyala Birsu, Budh
401-420 Full
426 First Para
431-438 All (IMP)
439-444 Bold Points (just glance)
445 First Para 447: 1st 2nd Para
450-454 Full
456-460 Selective Reading for high & low growth. Negative growth in 1978-80
461-481 Full (IMP)
483 & 487 Production Tables
499 (full) 502: year of Mineral Policy 503:Industry in HP
505 Table1 : Total & top 3 districts Table 2 & 3: Full
507 & 508. 510, 511, 516, 528 Full
535: Full 536: Potential 7 Year of hydro Policy & HIMURJA
538 to 541 Full
542 : Home Stay, Har Gaon …. 543: Tourist arrival in 2016
544 (Eco-Tourism Policy date)
548- 599 All (IMP)


[embedyt] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvN7OxHh9XM[/embedyt]


[embedyt] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuDSqE09hw4[/embedyt]


HP Questions in Prelims (GS): Focus/Revision Areas (20-35 Questions Anticipated)
Major Areas  Focus Areas Possible % questions of HP
Current Affairs (Prog. name, details & Agencies) Govt Schemes Awards & Appointments Agriculture & Infrastructure Projects Transport & Aviation 20
History (Dates, Persons & Archaeology) Ancient Janpads Kangra, Chamba & Kullu History Books & Authors on HP Mughals Invasions 20
Culture (Places, time & local terms) Dances Temples Fairs & Fests Advent of Paintings 10
HP in 19th & 20th Century (Dates, Names & Types) British: Sanads, Cantonments, Shimla Town Sikhs & Hills Begar, Reet & Praja Mandals Gorkhas & Treaty of Sugauli 10
Geography (Names & Places) Rivers,Springs & Lakes Census 2011: Districtwise rankings Buddhism & Moansteries Climate Change & National Parks 20
Economy (Data) Economic Survey: GDP break-up, Employment, forests & Environment Agriculture & Allied Power Projects: Rivers & Locations 5 year plans & growth %. Industries & Minerals 10
Governance (Years of Initiation & Objectives) Acts: RTI, Service Guarantee Policy: Tourism, IT, Industrial, HIMSWAN Tribes & Tribal welfare: Sub Plan & Single Line Adminstration Panchayati Raj in HP. IPRs & Geographic Indicators 10



Book for HAS, Allied & NT Exam Preparation: to be launched by 30 May 2017

Contact: 9882111655, 8350874747 & 9805839716

Salient features of Book:

  • Possibly first book written according to latest syllabus, so much of information is freshly worked out and reader may save time in searching material.

  • Both HAS Prelims. & Mains topics covered so that a complete solution is available.

  • Unnecessary detailed omitted to save time, and not to intimidate readers by size of book.

  • Objectivity is tried, so that every line/paragraph may become a potential question.

  • Research grade material inculcated to give readers an edge over present resources.

  • “Powerpoints” to remember have added after majority of topics.

  • Information put in tables, which could be more interesting to read & remember.

Himachal’s 1st ever Test Series for HAS 


Details about Helios Test Series
    • Total Tests=25 (including 2 Free tests. i.e. (22 General Studies & 3 Aptitude)
    • Total Questions = 100/Test . GS tests shall contain 35% questions on HP only. All high grade tests shall be original & and made in-house @ HELIOS experts.
    • Registration at website is necessary for getting password. http://helioscoachingtestseries.com/wp-login.php?action=register
    • Ranking amongst all test takers of the state/outside
    • Please register before 10th April 2016 to realize maximum benefits
    • 1.Online Tests/Test@ Helios Centre’s fee: Rs. 1,500.
    1. Printed Tests fee (Courier): Rs. 2,500.
    2. Paper based Tests @ Helios Centres/Collection by hand: Rs. 2,000 On paper test (Shimla * Dharamshala * Sundernagar * Solan )
    • Online test Series Schedule: 1st (Free Test): 8th April 2017 2nd (Free Test): 9th April 2017 3rd test: From 14th April-Till 16 June 2017 (all Saturdays & Sundays)


    Contact: 9882111655, 9805839716 (whatsapp), 8350874747 & 0177-2810000


    Email: helioscoachingshimla@gmail.com


Short Notes for HAS (Sample)



Personal Plan for preparation

HAS Preparation in 4 months (Feb-May 2017)
120 days (Feb-May 2017)

Preparation @ 12 Hours/day

1440 Hours =  Total Time Available

1224 Hours =  for GS @ 85% of Total

216 Hours = for CSAT @ 15% of Total


Subject % of GS time Hours Emphasis 1 Emphasis 2 Emphasis 3
HP 30 367  History & Culture Geography Socio Economic+Econ Review
History 15 184 after 1857 Medieval/Ancient Gandhi
Geo 15 184 Physical Indian Agriculture
Polity 10 122 Constitution Policy PRI
Econ 5 61 IND Economy Demographics Schemes
Science-Tech 10 122 CA PCB Technology
Environ 8 98 CA Climate Change Disaster Mgt
Current 7 86 Schemes PIN Budget
Total 100 1224


For 4 Months: Preparation Material

HP Dr. Rajender Attri HELIOS Book Econ Survey/Budget/Schemes Dr Pramod Sharma (50% OK) Helios Material/Test Series
Geo NCERTs or Pratiyogita Darpan Atlas/Maps Leong/Khullar/Lucent GK MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series
Econ NCERTs or Pratiyogita Darpan Budget/ Econ.Survey Lucent GK/GK Today/Mrunal MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series
History NCERTs or Pratiyogita Darpan Gandhi’s Booklet Lucent GK/GK Today/Mrunal MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series
Polity NCERTs or Pratiyogita Darpan Laxmikant Lucent GK/GK Today/Mrunal MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series
S & T Lucent GK GK Today/Mrunal MCQs from TMH/Arihant MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series
Environment Environment &  Ecology: Hussain Shankar IAS GK Today/Mrunal MCQs from TMH/Arihant Helios Material/Test Series







HAS Prelims Cut-off analysis (5 June 2015)



HAS (Mains) Exam preparation Tips: by Helios Coaching

HAS Prelims Estimated Cut-off: Helios Coaching

 HAS Mains Coaching at Helios Coaching Shimla


How to attempt Aptitude Paper: Video in ENG


How to attempt HAS (Prelims) Paper: Video in ENG

[embedyt] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNKg2NgAREg[/embedyt]

How to attempt HAS (Prelims) Paper: Video in HINDI

This plan is supposed for last minute preparation for Helios Students (for others, well, assuming you have done general preparations) 

run out




HP Administrative Services (HAS) : FREE ki ADVICE for preparation (Tips)

Tried to give summary of my leanings from personal experiences of HAS preparation along with the whole process, till interview.It has been written to facilitate fresh aspirants to have first hand interface of process and associated things.

Disclaimer: views are presented in rather friendly & open manner, request you to please take it in right spirit (means, assume me as a humble person, only!)

Approach for Prelims & Mains

1. Basics @ Place

Ambition, Focus, Honesty and little talent: Indispensable, n we know it & have it..!.

Understanding of Curriculum & Requirements very, very well

Consistency & Patience: Plan, work in teams, if possible & never lose the steam

Basics @Place: Should be there or spend great time to make-up real quick.

Generalist not Specialist approach: No PhDs to be granted here. Do what is just enough, don’t delve long the sea of information, u may not be able to reach back shores.

Right Approach: For Study, comprehension, retention & execution/presentation

2. Major Challenges @ Prelims & Mains

Information Overload: Great Depth & Width in syllabus

How to Approach: Analyze & Understand the real stuff

How to Retain: Information overload, Mnemonics & Repetition reqd.

How to present in exam: Execution & Presentation well in time

Role of Interview: Supercritical, it weighs more than its weight

3. How to Approach Systematically

Solve past 5-7 years IAS/HAS papers in exam-like conditions. Score of : 35-40% is a great fillip, 25-35% is not bad either. I guess, even low 20s can be reasonable ( though, back breaking hard-work required)

Analyze yourself according to papers & syllabus: Rate yourself in each. Allocate time in proportion to it.

Mix & match topics across streams to keep it interesting while preparing.

While planning & execution always keep in mind effective time available .

4. Potential Mistakes people make while @ work

Fukra attitude: Over-zeal & hyper-confidence.(Remember: “Talent is never Enough” = John C. Maxwell)

Working on strengths only: Putting all hard work @ grave risk by ignoring weak areas. You don’t get 2 marks for 1 mark question for doing it in 0.25 of a second.

Less Interaction & sharing: “Koop Manduk effect”..?..Work in teams. Nothing beats a team of 2 or more.

Too much internet: Burden-some, paining eyes, RAM effect on memory (U FORGET QUICKLY), & a heavy hard disk (information overload)

Practice maths et al even u r Bertrand Russel. U may be Wordsworth, even then vocabulary work is IMP.

Over-attempt in MCQs (Target a RIGHT score)

5. Estimated Cut-offs & Selection scores


General Studies Aptitude Test Approx %
90-100 (IAS) 120-125 (IAS) 55%
110-120 (HAS) 130-140 (HAS) 60%
Mains (IAS/HAS): 60%

HAS Cut off marks 2012

6. “3 MISTAKES” of my preparation (Learn from other’s losses.!)

(Was less focused & got less then 100 Days for Mains)

a. Not starting mains preparations along-with prelims: Lost precious, precious time. So, please start concurrently, helps in GS & interviews.

b. Ignored HP GK/Awareness a bit : It can cost in Prelims, GS & Interview as well (One of the esteemed interviewers in Board begun with some 15 questions subprime (below the belt) “Rapid-fire”from his handwritten “parchee”(Notes) I lost plenty of them. I am sure he knew neither of them as well, that’s why he writes = Maha-LOL (as Mrunal says)..!…

Luckily other board member saved further blushes, by saying that it may be difficult for any of them to answer those filthy little cannons.

Overall board was quite decent & knowledgeable for sure. They made me miss me few more, but got some alright as well. . Got 90 in interview, with was rather OK score if not dazzling.

c. Choice of 2nd optional: Took my chance & paid in cash, for same. More details & marks-list @ Mains topic, underneath.

7. Pre. & Mains: Advise + relation with my little journey

I have made an attempt to relate things to my preparations n (+/- ves) so that u may make corrections according to your strengths & non-strengths.

a. Prelims: did in some 30 Days @ 3hours/day =100 Hours= Disaster @ making. Pl don’t try the same.I was lucky). Was a total total risk but saved by Purb janam kay karam (saved becauz of childhood types interest in GK stuff & some decent schooling)

(+) Basics in subjects, Grip on GK/Awareness, English, Science. Prepared a bit of Maths etc.

(-) HP GK/Awareness, Maths

It should be rather continuous journey, if not then: 350 Hours is minimum. Remember HP GK may be extra-terrestrial (ET) stuff for many including people with otherwise strong GK levels. Please keep aside 150 hours for HP GK et al as it may require repeated revisions of generally “erroneous” n insipid books. Same doesn’t apply for people having ET “photocopic ” abilities.

Negative marking = Don’t ride ur luck too far, it can desert you @ Atacama desert..!. (Don’t over attempt ur target). Difficult papers actually need lesser risks, as merit goes down. For genuine Daredevils “C” is my favorite in tie-breaker/guesswork
Time Management (Break-up every line of syllabus vis-a-vis time. day & hourwise, in EXCEL, preferably.)
Score Target: Need be clear before hand (may refer to tables at top)
Comprehension: Read questions first, Understand the theme, underline imp points,
Don’t ignore Hindi & Eng papers (qualifiers).
Stress Landmark events: Help in essay & interview as well.
Books to try : 1. NCERTs & GS Manuals: TATA McGraw or Spectrum (either)

2. “Himachal-The Paradise of India” = Dr. Pramod Sharma (+ve )Guess, best bet, Huge material, classified rather well. (-ve) MCQs only, no notes & some small errors, to be fair are possible as not many sources are not authentic). Evergreen books of legendary Mr. J M Balokhra can also be sought for (long/Short) preparations

3. Websites for Current & GK : www.gktoday.in& Mrunal.org

4. Aptitude: R S Aggarwal & GS manuals, cited earlier.

(Mail me for more on books & sites, tried n tested ones)

b. Mains: Got 100 Days (@ 5 Hours/day = 500 Hours= Grossly insufficient TIME. Desirable is > 1500 Hours in normal conditions. 1,000 hours if you are Leonardo-da-vinci )

Self Analysis: +ves & -ves for me (like-wise you may do yours)

(+) Writing/presentation skills, school concepts, Science & awareness.

(-) No time @ all + job to make ends meet, Depth of Grad. & PG subjects.

Choice of optional: Try 2 avoid popular subjects, until its ur own subject. Mine Blunder was taking Geography (Barely scored 100 here, but evaluation was horrific, i was aghast.!..). In spite of Post Grad in Management, I acted rather smart & ditched Management for love of Geo. Graduation was in Great Agriculture, so somehow scored >200, not bad for a “6 point some one” (6.12 OGPA in graduation…funny..Strangely, it was deliberate).

Niche Subjects: Scored double hundred without much prep. & in spite of not attempting them full. Anyway, i believe it’s better to take comfortable & less popular one. competition is much less & u score better in relative n absolute terms. For me Choice was Agriculture (some 6-7 people in mains) & Management (8-9 people).

IMP: Almost >200 people/420 people took Geo. in mains, if not mistaken then some 220.

Though i spent more time in Geography & less in Agriculture (which is actually more vast & tougher) but result was rather shocking. I scored double hundred in Agriculture(>100 in each papers) & barely 100 in two papers of Geo. A loss of approx. 100 marks because of geography (going to destroy you, luckily, still got call for Interview, thanks to other segments)

By any standards evaluation was bizarre, no doubt. But in independent preparations, one may find it challenging to write and get score high for his ORIGINAL answers. This is in contrast to people who have practiced & almost crammed answers @ Coaching/Academies/perennial preparations along-with churned out quality material.


My Mains mark-list



Essay Preparation

Read a lot, listen to TV / Radio, analyse & think
For HP its very easy to guess the essay (guessed rightly for 2 of them in exam)
In exam hall, Make points for 10-15 minutes. I took some 30 min (write shortly in last page)
Make a skeleton/chart of essay in last page
Don’t spam/bug examiner with Cock & Bull stories : Writing for piling up sheets may backfire.
Make it reader friendly: Underline key points.
Ω Last & most Imp. Advice = Always make notes of new/interesting/difficult material= Greatest for retention & revision later. benchmark could be 10% of total material read i.e. 1 page note for 10 pages read.Make maps/flow charts/diagrams


We shall try to give you free & customized solutions with more insightful answers after meeting in person. Else, mail us @ helioscoachingshimla@gmail.com for anything specific, we’ll try to revert ASAP.

Why Helios Coaching Shimla (matlab ki baat!)

Coaching is not a panacea/silver bullet: But you get direction, save time & remain consistent. Moreover, u can get opportunity to make teams and improve quality of preparation and motivation, of course.
It can create impact of 20-30% only. But its much more than what one may require in the end. I realized it later after losing it by 2-3% (though no regrets..!.)
Taught by competent professionals, having experience of entire process (HAS), till interview.
Simultaneous Interview preparation: weight age more than 15%, because of low marks in mains.
Training of Psychology, English & body language. Shall help in preparation of P.I. with prelims. itself.



IAS/HAS Course 2017 @ Helios Coaching Shimla, Dharamshala & Sundernagar

Break-up of Annual course (Pre+ Mains)

Area/Subject Hours
SWOT analysis & customised strategy formulation 5
Foundation Course 7
Prelims – Aptitude 75
Prelims – General Awareness 75
Prelims & Mains – HP Awareness 115
Paper – A = Language -300 Marks 30
Paper – B  = English -300 Marks 20
Paper – I = Essay 30
Paper-II  General Studies-I  (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) 110
Paper-III General Studies -II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations) 120
Paper-IV General Studies -III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management) 100
Paper-V General Studies -IV (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 75
Interview/Personality Test 25
Topicwise weekly Quiz series (Alongwith Syllabus) 200
Integrated test Series for Pre/Mains 75
Total Hours 1062





Short Study Material


    • HP: Revision Pointers
        • HP: Approx. Latitude 30N to 33N and Longitude 75E to 79E.
        • HP Population -68,64,602; density =123 persons (Highest Hamirpur=407 & lowest L&S=2)
        • 69% population dependent on Agriculture, 90% is rural population. Per capita income of HP is at 1,04,943 for 2014-15.
        • Total Roads Length = 34,647 Kms. R C Scot introduced Apples to the Kullu valley in 1870 & SN Stokes in Thanedhar (1916)
        • HP = Centrally Admin. Territory – 15th April, 1948.1951, HP became a part“C” State (36 Member assembly)
        • HP’s first Chief Commissioner – Mr. Mehta & E. Penderal Moon (Deputy)
        • 1883 –Jugga Movement (Self-immolation, Bilaspur). 1960, Kinnaur formed out of Chini Tehsil, Mahasu (Later Shimla)
        • Kullu, Kangra, L&S, Shimla joined HP– 1st Nov 1966
        • Hamirpur, Una created (Shimla & Solan reorganised) – 1st Sept 1972
        • 1857 –Jatogh Revolt – Under Bhim Singh. 1939 – Kunihar Struggle (Pt.Padam Dev) & Dhami Firing – on 16 July (Bhagmal Sahota)
        • 1942 –Panjotha Movement (Sirmour) – “Bhai do na pai”. Pahari Gandhi – Baba Kanshi Ram= Wore black clothes
        • Fazl Ali– Chairman of State Re-organisation Comm. (Other Members: Panicker & Kunzru)
        • Suket Satyagrah– 18 Feb 1948 (Pt. Padam Dev against Raja Laxman Singh)
        • Mandi Agitation(against Raja and Wazir Padha Jeevanand)-1909-10
        • 1938-Formation of Himalayan Riyasati Praja Mandal @ Ludhiana.
        • 30thSept 1948 – 9 Member Advisory Council setup
        • 1stMarch 1952 – Chief commissioner was replaced by Lt.Guv (MJ Himmat Singh)
        • Bilaspur a “C” state added – 1 July 1954.  24 March 1952 – 1st Vidhan Sabha. 1 Nov 1956 – HP made a UT
        • 15 Aug 1957 – Territorial Council (Karam Singh Thakur, Chairman)
        • 25 Jan 1971 – HP becomes 18thState (PM Indira @ Ridge)
        • 1978- HP Agri University Palampur, YSP Solan Univ. 1985
        • High Court, HPPSC, HPU– 1971. HP Subordinate Services, Hamirpur – 1998
        • Jan 2000 – PVC Capt Vikram Batra & Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, 1stSomnath Sharma
        • 26 May 2002,Rohtang Tunnel foundation laid by PM Vajpayee
        • YS Parmar, CM of HP –1952, 1963, 1967 & 1972
        • 1stGuv: S. Chakarvarti, 1st Vidhan Sabha Speaker: Jaiwant Ram; M S Beg – 1st Chief Justice; Leela Seth: 1stlady Chief Justice of HP High court. 1st Lady Speaker: Vidya Stokes
        • 1stPadam Shri : K C Mahajan. HP declared hill state – 1964
        • Kalidasa in Kumara-Sambhava called Himachal Devata-Aatma or Divine Soul & mentioned”Kinners”
        • HP State Flower (Declared: 2007) –Pink Rhododendron (Gulaabi buraansh), Rhododendron Campanulatum
        • HP State Bird (Declared: 2007) – Jujurana = King of Birds (Western Tragopan)
        • HP State Animal (Declared: 2007) -Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia)
        • HP State Tree – Deodar (Cedrus deodara)
        • Su-Sharma Chander{Built Kangra Fort (on river Manjhi & Banganga) & Trigarta Empire =Kangra+Chamba)} supported Kaurav & Fought Pandav
        • Rivers :Biggest=Chenab(Askini)=Chandra+Bhaga @ Tandi, Longest – Satluj 320Km = Satudri @ Rakas/Mansarovar, Smallest – Yamuna=22km.Ravi (Parushini/Iravati) origin@ Bhara-Bhangal, Beas(Arijikiya/Vipasha)=Hyphasis @Vyas Kund, Rohtang .@ its Banks: 12 God’s Altars by Alexander B/W Indora & Mirthal
        • Devodas {Rishi Bhardwaj was his Chief Counselor, His son=Sudas (fought battle of 10 Kings)} =Devodas Killed King Sambhar @ Uduvraj(Kirat)=40 years=99 Forts destroyed.
        • Battle of Hydapes (Jhelum)=326BC=Alexander beats Porus(King Parvatak)
        • Ashoka Stupa= Kullu Valley & Paonta Valley (Indo-Aryan Art)
        • Maharaja Sansar Chand(1765-1823)=Grandson of Ghamand Chand Katoch(Guv. of Jalandhar instated by AS Abdali, & Def. By Jassa Singh Ramgarhiya (1770))=MSC, Son of Tegh Chand=MSC,Father of Anirudh Chand=1810,Signed Treaty of Jwalamukhi; retired to Lamba-graon (Gram)
        • 1814-16=Gurkha War= Gen. OchterloneyVs Amar Singh Thapa(Gurkhaz, 1809 def. By Sansar Chand & Maharaja Ranjit Singh)
        • King JanamTapi was killedby Rishi Vashistha For Insulting Hills of Himachal
      • S.No.             KINGS                                                  CITY/TOWN                     
      •                       Dip Chand                                         Bilaspur(1650-56)
      •                      Vijay Ram Chand                               Bijapur Town(Kangra)
      •                      Garur Sen                                          Sundernagar(1712)
      •                     Karam Prakash                                    Nahan(1621)(Sirmaur)
      •                      Major Kennedy                                   Shimla(1822)
      •                      Sahil Varman                                           Chamba(920-40)
      •                   Susharma Chandra                                       Kangra
      •                   Bahingmuni  Pal                                           Kullu(1 Cent AD)
      •                    Ajbar Sen                                                   Mandi(1526)
      •                    Raja Ram Singh                                          Rampur(Shimla)
      •                     Rana Tegh Chand                                       Jubbal(16th century)(Shimla)
      •                     Ghamand Chand                                        Sujanpur
      •                      Jethpal(Tomar Rajput)                              Nurpur(1000)

      KING/FOUNDER                                        STATE/DOMINION

        •                          Hari Chand                                                   Guler State(1405)
        •                          Ratna Bhadra                                               Kullu State
        •                          Bir Chand Chandel                                       Kehlur Dominion(900)
        •                          Ajay Chand                                                   Nalagarh Dominion(1000)
        •                          Maru                                                        Chamba Dominion(550)
        •                          Bahu Sen                                                      Mandi Dominion(1200)
        •                          Bir Sen                                                          Suket State(765)
        •                          Shubhansh Prakash                                      Sirmaur State(1195)
        •                          Abhoj Deo                                                     Kunihar Dominion(1154)
      • Shivratri Fair = Mandi = 1stGods Visit Raj Madho Rai (Leads Procession) Temple =Kamrunag(Rain God),chief deity=Pay Homage to Shiva(@ Bhootnath)=Raja of Mandi Suraj singh Lost  18 sons, in 1648 handed over admin. to Madho(Krishna) & got made a silver idol by Bhim=celebrated since+Guru-Chela predict next year Events, Jagaran @ end
      • Minjar (Chamba)=Maize Flower=Chamba=August=Horse Decorated, offerings 2 God Varuna at Ravi=Raja Sahil Varman defeated tribal Turukash=People Offered Minjar to King who gave Asharfis(gold)=celebrated since.
      • Nalwari Fair=Bilaspur=started by Goldstein during Raja Amar Chand’s rule=trading in Cattle=March. = 1889
      • Baisakhi Mela=At Rukamani Kund & Mata Rukmani Shrine,Bilaspur=In Memory of Rukmani Who Sacrificed her life for providing drinking water in this dry area.
      • Nalwar Fair=Sundernagar=March/April=Cattle Fair
      • Lavi Fair=Ancient most Trade Fair(235 years old)=Rampur=Nov.
      • Thissur Fair=Rewalsar in Mandi
      • Sippi Fair=Mashobra(Shimla)=Lord Shiva=Started by Rana of Koti
      • Dolru Fair=New Year Festival=Bharmour
      • Ladarcha Mela=Kaza,Spiti=July/Aug=A Commercial, cultural and religious fair attended by Traders from Ladakh, lahaul,Bushahr,Spiti
      • Gataur Festival=Sept.=Spiti=Lamas worship God Chaugayal=Chham dance(To celebrate Killing of cruel Tibetan ruler Langdarma) is performed.
      • Losar=celebrated to mark Tibetan New year=Upper Kinnaur
      • Jakaru Fair=Pangi=End of Feb.=Thanksgiving to God for helping local people to survive winter.
      • Renuka(Mother of Parshuram,wife of Rishi Jamdagini) Fair=Sirmur=After Kharif crops cultivation=Nov.
      • Vrajeshwari Fair=twice a year=Kangra.
      • Chatrali(called Chatra in Kullu,Dholru in Brahmpur)=March-April(Chet)=Dhaki &Turicaste People Dance on the courtyard of village Temple=For Happiness & Prosperity=Dholru, Ching(Related Hill folk songs).
      • Festival of Rainy Season=Shegteran(lahaul)=Totu(A Ball of Sattu Flour with Butter on it)& Marigold Floweroffered to Guru Ghantalor Gophen by throwing in air,Haryali(Kangra,Sirmur)=Cattles are given Rest & worshiped=Farmers pick Cheeran(lice ,bugs,insects etc.) from Cattle,Rahyali(Upper Shimla Hills),Dakhren(Jubbal & Kinnaur).
      • Cherwal(called Badranjo in Kullu,Partodu in Chamba=Special Dish Patroduis cooked)=Festival of Fire=Mid. August=Chira(Earth dug from Fields & placed B\w slabs of Wood & around it Turf & flowers are tied)formed & worshiped.
      • Phulech = Flower(Ukhyang,locally known Ookayand)=Kinnaur=mid. August or Early Sept.=Festival of Flowers=Garlands of Flower offered to village Deity=Priest Forecast about crops,change in seasons.
      • Bori Diali (called Budhi  Diwli &Kole-ri-Diwali in kullu=Signify victory of Khash Over Nag/kol(also mentioned By Lal Chand Prarthi in his book “Kulut Desh Ki Kahani”) =People Dance Around Bonfire, sing Ramayana & Mahabharta,Khojala in Lahaul=during Full moon Time in jan.=Throw Burning Mashals, Leaves of Deodar Tree in The name of Gephan & Brajeshwari Devi
      • Khumbh Of Hill People(12 year)=Bhunda(Brahmin)=In Nirmand Worship Parshguram &Kali=In Bhunda Ceremony a person of Beda caste(an Old Naga caste)is put on the rope made of special grass (Munji)orMoonj, Shant(Rajput)=winter=means Peace & Prosperity.Bhoj(koli), Nawala(Gaddi)
      • Dushehra=Kullu=July 1651,Damodar Dass got Lord Raghunathji Idol From Ayodhya=installed by Raja Jagat Singh{1637-1672}(To Avoid Curse by Durga Dutt)=devoted his Kingdom to Lord Raghunathji=Fair celebrated since=under Bairagi Krishna Dass(Introduced Vaisnavism in Valley).
      • Ghantal Festival=Guru Ghantal Gompa=mid june=Lahaul
      • Nawala=Festival Of Gaddis=Kangra,Chamba,Kullu,Mandi=To Lord Shiva.
      • Chatrari Jatra=vill. Chitrari,Chamba=10th day of Waxing Moon in Sept.=Shakti Devi Worshipped &Mask Dances are Performed.
      • Suhi Fair=Chamba Town=11,12,13th April=Only Attended by women & children=From the time of Raja Sahil Varman(920-40AD)=Sunayana Devi(Suhi Mata) sacrificed herself to bring water to Chamba town at Maloon=Palanquin-shaped Suhi temple is located on Hillock above Chamba Town
      • Dal Fair=Also Lake=Dharamsala=Aug.=Girths & Gorkhas are Found of it.
      • Dhungri Fair=Manali=May=Godess Hadimba.
      • Sair Fair=Arki town,Solan=16th sept.=Thanks Giving for abundant rain=Buffalo Fighting=also in vill. Dhagogi(Mashobra) called Jhote ka Mela in sept. Gandhi Mela=30th Jan.(Gandhi assassinated)=Amboa, distt. Sirmaur
      • Pather ka Khel=vill. Halog(Dhami,Shimla)=People throw Stones at one another till someone bleeds.
      • Ladarcha Fair=vill. Khibar=July/Aug.=Traders meet & Barter their Products.
      • Trilokinath Fair=Lahaul=Aug.=Honour of Avlokiteshwar
      • Phool Jatra=Pangi,Chamba=15 oct.=Dehant Nag(Deity of Kupha) is Worshipped.
      • Toshim=Kinnaur=celebrated and organized by male Youth only. Triloknath or Avalokiteshwar(Bodhisattava)Temple=Built by Lalitaditya=Padma Sambhava  Transformed it into Buddhist Shrine(Oldest Temple of buddhist After Bodh Gaya)
      • Mrikula Devi(Kali Devi) Temple @ Udaipur, Lahul Spiti = Ajay Varman
      • Hadimba Mandir(its a four-tiered Pagoda) = 1550 A.D  =Raja Bahadur Singh(Manali) = Bhim Killed her brother TANDI
      • Shakti Devi Temple(Bharmour) = Meru Varman(+ Mani-Mahesh Temple, Lakshna Devi at Bharmour, Chamba)
      • Gauri-Shankar Temple, Narvdeshwar Temple & Murli-Manohar Temple = Sujnapur -Tihra =Maharaja Sansar Chand
      • Balikeswar Temple = Nadaun =  Bhimakali Temple = Sarahan
      • Laxmi-Narayan, Hari-Rai Temple, Chandershekhar Temple, Kameshwar Temple & Champavati Temple = Sahil Varman (10th Century)
      • Tripura Sundari= Trilokpur (Nahan) = Raja Deep Prakash  in 1573
      • Naina Devi = Rajar Bir Chand. Shayam-Kali Temple = Mandi = Shyam Sen
      • Mandi=Choti Kashi=81 Temples=Trilokinath= 1520, Built by Sultan Devi=Raja Ajbar Sen’s Queen
      • Karewa-Shimla Hill Widow Remarriage,Called Jhanjarara or Gudaniin Kangra,Cholidoriin Chamba
      • Kee=Largest Monastry in HP=Spiti(between Khiber & Kaza)=Left Bank Of Spiti River
      • Kanjur & Tanjur=Encyclopedia Of Lamaism. Bhuri Singh Museum=Chamba=Estb. in 1908.
      • Major Charles Pratt Kennedy, made 1st Pucca House in Shimla (around Shamla Devi Temple) & invited Governor General of Bengal Lord Amherst to stay in 1827. Chamba=Valley of Milk & Honey.
      • 1stRailway line opened 9 Nov, 1903 = 30 years, @ cost of Rs. 1.6 crore=  96 Km=Narrow Gauge =762 mm= Now, 102 tunnels, 864 bridges(KLK-Shimla) = 2008-UNESCO World Heritage site (others sites are Darjeeling Himalayan Railway(WB) and the Nilgiri Mountain Railway (Ooty TN)
      • 1991(Jan.)-Himachal was linked with the Broad gauge system in UNA, By extending Delhi-Nangal Railway Line.
      • Haathidhar – Separates Kangra from Chamba
      • Kakrer Dhar – highest in Bilaspur – 1430 Mts.
      • Hanuman ka Tibba – Highest peak in Dhauladhar
      • Dangi Dhar – Between Jammu & Chamba
      • Kunjum Pass – separates Lahul & Spiti
      • Lahul = ‘Layo-ul’ = Southern Country
      • Malana= Little Greece of HP = Oldest Democracy
      • Rohtang= Pile of corpse= Gateway 2 Spiti, Pangi, Lahul & Zanskar
      • Shipki-la Pass=@Kinnaur=Gateway 2 Tibet=Satluj enters IND
      • Beas Gufa=@ Bilaspur=100 Mts Long
      • Sarur Cave=@Tatapani (656 Mts.) & Latru Mahadev Cave (Arki)=Shiv
      • Karol Tibba=Pandav refuge=Solan
      • Zanskar= Eastern Range=B/W Kinnaur & Spiti from Tibet. Mt. Shilla=7025 mts.
      • Smallest town=Naina Devi; Largest=Shimla
      • Wild Flower Hall= Residence of Lord Kitchener=C-in-C of India
      • The Retreat= Resort of Lord Curzon
      • Hem Kunj’ ( formerly “Dane’s Folly” ) = summer resort of the Punjab Governor
      • HP has 4 Zoos: Gopalpur / Kufri+ Tuttikandi / Renuka / Rewalsar
      • Music for “Kadam-2 badhaye ja” = Capt. Veer Ram Singh = Khaniara
      • 1857 = Sub. Bheem Singh = lead revolt from Kasauli 2 Jatogh (SML)


Source: Er. Prikshit @ Helios  (compiled Notes)

 INDIAN History after 1857

  • Dada Bhai Naroji= Grand Old Man of India= Book-Poverty & UN-British rule in India = Drain of wealth theory = INC President: 1886, 1893 & 1906
  • D. Savarkar called Revolt of 1857 “First War Of Indian Independence”
  • General Bakht Khan from Bareilly Regiment Captured Delhi but Lost Delhi to English Led by John Nicholson in Sept. 1857.
  • Pioneer of Constitutional Agitation-Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Swami Vivekananda wrote “The only Hope of India is From Masses”
  • INC formed during Lord Dufferin = 1stSession =28–31 December 1885, Bombay = was attended by 72 delegates. 1st Prez = Womesh Chander Bannerjee = A O Hume, Founder
  • Partition Of Bengal-Under Lord Curzon(Viceroy) on 16th Oct. 1905=Mourning of Bengal=Partition scheme was basically worked out with H.H. Risley.
  • Congress session of 1905 at Benares was held under Presidency of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Servants of  Indian Society was launched  in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Ghokahle.
  • Congress Split-1907,Suratsession as Rashbehari Ghosh,a moderate, was not acceptable to Extremists as President. they wanted Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Prominent INC Presidents:1887 = Badruddin Tyabji (First Muslims Prz), 1890-Pherozeshah Mehta (1sttime calculated Per Capita Income in IND),  1924-Mahatma Gandhi @ Belgaum (Netaji called him “The Father of Our Nation” @ Rangoon, 1944),     1931-Vallabhbhai Patel,  1938 (Haripura) & 39 (Tripuri) = Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose (Gandhi Called him patriot of patriots/Prince among patriots in 1942)
  • Bala Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920)= Father of Indian Unrest (called by Valentine Chirol)= Lokmanya Tilak= Home Rule League (1915-16)at Poona= Started Ganesh Utsav in MH (1894) = Maratha (Eng) & Kesari (Marathi) Papers= “Swaraj is my birthright”= Books -“Shrimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya” & “The Arctic Home in the Vedas”
  • Home Rule League under Annie Besant(Paper-New India) & S. Subramaniya Iyer at Madras.
  • Lucknow Pact=1916=Reunion of Congress Factions along With Muslim League.
  • All India Muslim League Founded at Dacca in 1906. Founders = Salimullah SA Khan et al.
  • Mahatma Gandhiwas in South Africa from 1893-1914 against General Smut’s Regime
  • In 1915 Set up Ashram at Ahmedabad on Banks of the Sabarmati River.
  • In April 1917 successfully put an end to Oppression of The Indigo Planters on the Peasants of Champaran in North Bihar.
  • Mahatma GandhiFor the First Time undertook a Fast in India=Ahmedabad Mills strike.
  • Mahatma GandhiCame in Contact with Vallabh bhai Patel During his Campaign in Kheda(Gujarat) in 1918.
  • On Feb. 1919,Mahatma Gandhifounded the Satyagraha Sabha against Rowlatt Act(Passed on March,1919)
  • Non-Cooperation Movement was the First Mass-Based Political Movement Under Mahatma
  • Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on March 5,1931.
  • GandhiAttended Second Round Table Conference on Sept. 7,1931.
  • Gandhi Began a Fast unto Death at Yeravada Prison At Poona against Ramsay MacDonald’s Announcement of Communal Award on 17 aug. 1932.Later on Agreement B/w Caste Hindus & its Leaders was Secured And Came To Be Known as Poona Pact Of 25 Sept. 1932.An All India Anti-Untouchability League was Started in Sept. 1932 & A Weekly Harijan In Jan. 1933
  • Gandhi on 12 March 1930 set out from Ahmedabad to Dandi  Broke Salt law on April 6.He Was Arrested on May 5,before he Could make salt at Dharsana.
  • Act of 1876 – Queen Victoria = Empress of India
  • Pattabhi Sitaramayya,Gandhi’s Nominee ,was defeated by Subhas Bose in 1939 to become President of Congress at Tripuri .
  • On Dec. 31,1929,The Newly adopted Tri-Colour Flag was Unfurled.
  • Jallianwala Bagh(Amritsar) Massacre on 13th,April 1919(Baisakhi) by Lt. Governer Michael O’ Dwyer on Crowd gathered against the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew & Dr. Satyapal. Later Hunter Commission = 1919, to probe Jallianwala Bagh. 1940, @ Caxton Hall ( London), Udham Singh killed Michael O’Dwyer.
  • Khilafat Committee formed By Maulana Azad,Hakim Ajmal Khan,Hasrat Mohini Muhammad Ali & Shaukat Ali.
  • The Tilak Swarajya Fund was started in April 1921(Vijayawada session of AICC)
  • April 8,1929 Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt threw a BOMB in the Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh on 17th Dec. 1928 Shot Dead Saunders(ASP,Lahore),Bhagat Singh wrote “Why I Am Atheist” in Lahore Jail
  • Saheed Chandersekhar Azad (b. 23 July 1906)= Mentor of Sh. Bhagat Singh= HSRA=“Saheed”  @ Alfred Park (Allahabad, 27 Feb 1931)
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan(Frontier Gandhi) organized the society of ‘Khudai khidmatdars'(Servents of God)Also Known as “Red Shirts”.
  • Bengal(Krishak Praja Party-Muslim League Coalition) & Punjab(Unionist Party) are The two Provinces that Had Non Congress Ministries after 1937 Elections.
  • At Haripura Congress Session The Idea of Economic Planning Accepted.
  • Naren Bhattacharjee=Founder Of Communist Party Of India.
  • Lord Linlithgow Declared India To be at War During 2nd World war.
  • Dange was Editor of The Weekly Socialist From Bombay,The First Definitely Communist journal To be published in India.
  • Savarkar at Nagpur Session,1938,Declared-We Hindus are a Nation by Ourselves
  • VinobaBhave=First Person to Offer Individual Satyagrah in 1940.
  • At Lahore Session of Muslim League in March 1940,Jinnah introduced a resolution which included theDemand for Pakistan.
  • March 11,1942 Winston Churchill announced that British Cabinet was Sending a Mission to India under Sir Stafford Cripps.Crippsoffer was Called A “Post Dated Cheque”by Gandhi,thus rejected.
  • Quit India or Bharat Choro movement was Started on Aug. 8,1942 in Bombay.became Gandhi was arrested & kept at Aga Khan Palace(Pune).Newspapers like National Herald & Harijan were Banned.
  • INA chief Subhas Bose hoisted Indian Flag in Andamans(THE ‘SHAHID’)& Nicobar(THE ‘SWARAJ’)in Dec. 1943.Entered India Took Kohima & Planted National Flag On The Indian Soil on 19th March,1944,INA Flag was hoisted at Moirang (Manipur).
  • 6th July,1944,Subhas Bose Declared The Beginning of “India’s Last War of Independence”on Azad Hind Radio Broadcast.
  • Recent Books & Authors (2014):
  • Playing It My Way=An Autobiography of Cricket Star Sachin Tendulkar
  • 1283 goals=Pele
  • I Am Malala=An Autobiography of Malala Yousufzai(Nobel Peace Prize Winner 2014)
  • Gandhi Before India=Ramchandra Guha
  • How Not To Make Money=Raj Kundra
  • My Journey:Transforming Dreams Into Actions=Dr. APJ Kalam
  • Agenda For India’s Growth=P. Chidambaram
  • The Lowland=Jhumpa Lahiri
  • Fantastic Beasts And Where To Find Them(Harry Potter Companion Books)=Rowling
  • 2014:The Election That Changed India=Rajdeep Sardesai.
  • Unbreakable : An Autobiography=Mary Kom
  • The AccidentalPrime Minister : The Making and Unmaking of Manmohan Singh=Sanjaya Baru
  • One Life Is Not Enough : An Autobiography=Natwar Singh
  • The Narrow Road To The Deep North=Richard Flanagan(Winner 2014 Man Booker Prize)
  • The Lives of Others=Neel Mukherjee(Nominee 2014 Man Booker Prize)
  • India’s own Payment Gateway=RuPay
  • Earth Day=22 April, World Press freedom Day=May 3, International Nurse Day=12 May, World Public Service Day=June 23, World Refugee Day=June 20, International Day against Drug Abuse & Illicit Trafficking= June 26. 11 July World Population Day, 12 August International Youth Day
  • 15 September: International Day of Democracy, 27 September: World Tourism Day
  • Glasgow,Scotland=2014 Commonwealth games.
  • ‘And Then One Day’= Naseeruddin Shah’s autobiography
  • Hindi film ‘Liar’s Dice’, Indian entry to Oscars
  • Mission accomplished: India’s Mangalyaan enters Mars orbit September 24, 2014
  • General Dalbir Singh Suhag, taken over as the Army Chief (26th)
  • “Not Just an Accountant” authored byVinod Rai
  • “Odyssey of My Life”Shivraj Patil’s autobiography
  • Manipur=Clinched 20th Senior National Women’s Football Championship.
  • Russi Mody=The Steel Man Of India=Former Chief Of Tisco=Died
  • Extension.Bharatwhich will be in Devanagari script.

Other short notes:

(W-W-W)Willy – Willy = West AUS cyclone

(4S’s 2 remember) 1907 (Seven) = Surat = Split = Sardar Bhagat Singh = INC Prez RB Bose

1884  = Woods Dispatch = Magna Carta of Edu. in IND

CHENAB=      Baglihar Dam, Dul-hasti, Salal   ( Kashmir) B-D-S

1921 =         Year of Great divide in IND = Population growth decline

Venice of North = Stockholm; Queen of Adriatic = Venice

White man’s Grave = Guinea; Atacama Desert = Chile

Hyderabad @ MUSI River = City of pearls, Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tomb, Golconda fort + Hussain Sagar

16 Oct. 1945 = Bengal partition = World Food day

T S M I ( Troposphere stratosphere mesosphere Inosphere)

Lagoon Lakes = Chilka (OR) > pulicat (AP) > Vebnand (Kerala)

Spring tides= High, Neap Tides= Low

EL Nino (Low Rainfall, low pressure high Temp, droughts)

El Nino-MODOKI  = Causes Hurricanes

La Nina ( High R, Low P, Low T, High fishes) = Rain in IND

Dandi march ( 12 March 1930 – 6 April)

Mars> (Asteroid)< Jupiter (Biggest Gaseous)

Temperate Coniferous Forests = High % of Forest Area

Gypsies were Indians

Indonesia   =Largest archipelago= 14,000 islands, worlds 4th populas contry & world’s most populous island of Java contains 51% of the country’s population.

Victoria Falls (“Mosi-oa-Tunya”) between Zambia and Zimbabwe = Zambesi River

4 Feb – Cancer Day, 12 Jan = Youth Day (S. Vivekanand)

Michael Phelps (USA) = Most awarded Olympian EVER, 22 Medals (18 Gold)

Maj Gen Rajinder Singh Ji =Sparrow = State Bird of DL =

Walking with Lions, One Life is Not Enough = Natwar Singh (Book)

15 March = consumers rights Day

Franscois Holland – Prez off France ( Holland = France : : 1 : 1)

Almatty Dam = Krishna River ( Krishna = Almighty)

Tribals of A &N= ONGE (Negroids)

Anticyclone = (P high, T Low) = Clockwise in North hemi. (Cyclone is opposite)

Damodar Valley Corp = 1st multipurpose in IND = Based on TVA (V SA)

Tehri Dam = Highest @ Bhagirathi

Methur Dam (TN) Cauvery River

Peninsular Rivers: North to South : ( M > G > K > K > V) MAhandi, Godavari, Krishna,Kaveri, Vaigi (Mahatma Gandhi Krishi ka Vidylaya)

West Flowing River ( Narvada, Tapti, Mahi Luni, Ghaggar, Sabarmati) + No Delta = Form Estuary = No Sediments = Rift Valleys

Simplipal Reserve = Orissa ( OR + Simple People) + BIOSPHERE

(Now National Parks @ Mayurblanj)

RJ – Max Area under Saline (Salty ) wetland

Assam = { Manas, Nameri, Dibru-Saikhowa , Kazranga, ornag}

Jim Corbett ( 1936) + 1st national park, UK = Hailey (earlier)

(Total IND = 166) = 1.21% of IND, Area

Arvalli mountains = oldest in IND = 370 million years

NH – 7 = Varanasi to Kanya Kumari = IND Longest

Kol Dam= NTPC

Art. 108 = joint sitting of RS and LS

Art. 21A, 93 Amend = free Edu ( 6-14 years)

Greshams Law : Bad Money Drives out the good money

SATMO = Satellite Money order, 16 Dec, 1994

Apollo 11 = Landed on Moon (USA)

9 – 23 Dec, 1946 = 1st Session of Constituent assembly

Directive Principles = Ireland.

Union and state Relation = GOI Act 1935 and Canada

Concurrent list = Aus : Emergency = GER, USSR > Fund Rights

PIL and judicial Review – taken from USA. Gresham’s law : Bad Money drives out the good money.

SATMO > Satellite money order , 16 Des, 1994. Apollo 11 = Landed on Moon (USA). 9-23 Dec, 1946, = 1st Session of constitution assembly

Directive principles = Ireland. Union & `State Relation = Got Act 1935 & Canada

Concurrent list = Aus ; Emergency = Ger, USSR – Fund Rights pil a judicial Review = USA

1989 = voting age become 18in IND. IVC = Town Planning, Wheat and cotter Pea Barley, G Ramany, Both Trade C Mesopotamia a stamps = Bull, Elephant and Rhinos

Red Data book = IUCN _ endangered species. 1947 = QATT Agreement And 1 Jan, 1995 ( GAtt= WTO)

NATO = 1949. IST = 1905 = Lord Curzon. Cabinet Mission = 1946. 1932 = Communal Award = Ramsay  Mc Donald ( PM of UK)

1857 = During lord Canning ; 1885 = INC = Dufferin. Confederation = more power C states ( USA). Federal = mixed with powerful centre (IND)

Unitary = All with centre. President is Supreme commander = Art 53. Harappa = RAVI = 1921 (RD Sahani). Mohanjodaro = INDUS = 1922 ( RD Banerjee)

Max Muller Said =  Aryans Came from Central Asia. Sept (7) Sindhu = Sindhu + Sarsvati + 5 Tributary

World Economic Outlook = World Bank = Doing business Report. CIL / SAIL/ ONGC = Maharatna comp. Bangalore Metro = Namma Metro

Ends justify means = Machiavelli. Vivekanand = Belur Math = Calcutta

1807 = British Abolish slave Trade. Electrons = J. J. Thomson.

Shilla = 7026 mts = Zanskar. Bushehr = 1857 = did not support British. Sirmour= established by Rasalu

Waterloo @ Belgium = Napoleon lost 2 duke of wellington ( 1815 = sent to St. Elba, 1821, = St. Helena )

Unto 2 the last (Book) = John Ruskin = Gandhi took ideas from this and translated as sarvodya loksZn;)

Charminar = built by Adil Shah. 1878 = Vernacular Press Act = Lord Lytton

S.C. Bose called Gandhi = Father of nation. OPEC , HQ and Vienna. GAIT/IMF and WB IBRD = Bretton wood conference in 1944

24 July = Income Tax Day. Finance Comm. = Art 280. National Income Stats (GDP etc) = CSO. NHB (National honour Bank = RBI subsidiary)

Rigveda = 1028 Hyms = Diety = Saraswati. Yellow River = Hwang- ho = CHN = W Sediments

Deepest Trench = 11022 mts = Challenger Deep = Murray expenditure

1900 km = Great Barrier Reef and Australia (Corals )

Normal Lapse Rate = 6.5 C/ 1 km (Inversion of Temperature is opposite of it)

Thermometer = Insurance of Barometer ( T and 1 / p)

Ferrel Law ( based on Coriolis Force) = Wind turns right H. S in North Hemi and left in S.H.

Permanent = Planetary winds of Trade / westerlies / polar

Seasonal Winds = Monsoons (Goes to and fro in particular direction)

ITCZ = formed by merging NE and SE trade Winds = Fog is good 4 tea and coffee.

Rainfall types = (1) Convectional (2) Orographic (3) Cyclonic / Frontal

Typhoon : Tropical Cyclones in CHN

Mediterramean Climate = Dry Summer and Rain winter in N. IND Western Disturbance Starts @ Mediterrana

1st Census of IND = 1871 -72, 1970 – 75. AGRI Census.

15 Agri. Climatic Zone ( Given by ICAR and Planning Comm.): 2 Himalayas + Gangetic  plain + 4 plateau + 2 East + W Ghat + GUJ plains + RJ + Islands)

1972 = Chipko Andolan = Sunder Lal Bahuguna

Langer = CHN, Mandarin = ENG = SPANISH =HINDI = ARABIAN

1992 = Earth Summit = Rio DE Jinero

Sagar + Gangas’ son = Jalandhar = Jalam and Dhara

Tertiary coal J&K ( Kala Kot ) and NE, IND. Plague : Caused by Yersinia Pestris

Penicillin : 1929 = Alexander Fleming

Virus + 1898 = Beijernick. Microscope = 1590 = Jansen and 1665 Robert Hooke

1969 = Whittaker = classification of organism

1902 = blood groups = Land Steiner

Insulin = Banting and Best (dogs pancreas)

Gayatri Mantra = Savitri Devi ; Samved = Music

Yajurved = Sacrifices. Up-nishad = Sit + near + Guru

Puranas  are 18 in number. Vedang are (6) =Shiksha, kelp, vayakarn, Nvikut Chhand , jyotish (Parts of Vedas)

Mahajanpad = 16. Jains: Knowledge faith conduct (K.F.C.)

Nalanda University = Kumar gupt

Rastrakuta = Danti Durga founder = Ellora Temple

Surya Varman = II + Anghor Vat Temple

Nalanda and Vikram Shila = Destroyed by Baktiyar khalji

Prithviraj III = Prithviraj Chuhan = Lost 1192 Trian to Gori

Wild Flower hall @ Shimla = lord Ktchner

Antilla of India = Mihirgul

1000 And Nurpur = Jethpal. 1288 = Suket = Birsen, 1948 = Suket Satyagraha

1815 = Gorkha War= Ochterlony (Eng.) Commander

Trilokinath = by Laliladitya & Avlokiteshwar = Padam Sambhav( Also Gurughantal Monastery)  

Hatkoti = Mahisurmardini. Tabo= Ajanta of Himalyas

Kanjur and Tanjur : Encylopedia of Buddhism

1509 -29 = Krishan Dev Ray, Lost in 1565 Talikota 1347 = Bahmani Empire ( Muslim)

Sher Shah Suri= Silver Rupiya = Farid khan. Beats humyan in 1539 and 1540 Khilji

Humanyu Died 1556, fell @ Library ; Book Humayu-nama= by Gulbadan ( Half sister)

Akbar = 1542 = born Amarkot ; 1556 ( II battle of Panipat). Bairam Khan was commander.Beats Hemu (Vikramditya) who was General of Adil Shah ( WB)

Nurjahan = Real name = Mehru Nisa. Mumtaz = Anjuman Bano

Jahangir = Executed G. Arjundev (5th Guru) = Shalimar = Nishat Bagh (Kashmir)

Shahajanha= Khurram = Taj ( 1631 – 1653). Zinda Pir = Davesh = Aurangzeb

  • Million Sq km = Surface of Earth. Country of Lakes & forests = FINLAND = River=Nokia HQ

Guru Hargovind = Army of Sikhs.

Himachal=15 April 1948. Part C State in 1951. In 1956 becomes UT 25 Jan, 1971 Acquires Statehood. ( 1966 Added PB parts)

Edison = wizard of Menlo Park. Hand held Camera = Eastman

Esperanto = Atrifical Language ; Noble gases = 6

1st Heart Transplant, cape Town , SA = Christian Bernard (1967) S. Africa. Washkansky was patient

“    “    “    “ in India > P. Venugopal (1994 AIIMS)

Meghalaya = No. Village Panchayat. 1688 = Madras = First Municipal Corp

Chairman of Union constituent Assembly JC Nehru . GV Mavlanker – 1st L. S. Speaker

Ordinance Art. 123 . High Court = Election Disputes Verdict

Rihand Project = Son River ; Ukai project = Tapti jayakwadi = Godavari

Delhi Sultanate > SKTSL > Slave , Khilji, Tuglaq, Sayyid and Lodhi ( 1206 – 1526)

1739 = Nadir Shah (Peacock Throne and Kohinoor taken,Got back by Maharaj Ranjit Singh)

1793 = Permanent Settlement. 1398 = Taimur Lang in Delhi

Pearl City = Hydarabad= Musi River=Pearl City=Hussain Sagar Lake=Golkonda Fort=Nehru Planetarium=Salar Jung Museum

Khetri , RJ = Cu : Rock Phosphate = RJ = Fertiliser

Oldest Coal Field =  Raniganj  ( WB ) ( Rani = Purani)

Nearby Oil Refineries = Mathura, Bhatinda and Manali in HP

Manchester of South India =  Coimbatore

Aluminium plot of HINDALCO = Renukoot. Haridwar = Heavy Machinery ( H – H ) + Ranchi Also

Varanasi = Locomotives ( Rail) of Diesel. Railway Coach Factory = Kapurthala

Muzzafarnagar (UP)= Sugar : Muzaffarpur (BH) = Litchi

Nhava Shava = Port @ Mumbai. Chennai / Madars = Artificial Port = Marina Beach IND Largest

Konkam Railway connects: Goa &  Mangalore. 4096 = longest Boder and Bangladesh

4286 km = Vivek Express= Dibrugarh 2 Kanyakumari. WB = 1102 = State and population density

(IND) literacy = 74.04% in 2011( 1st 1871-72 Census). Year of Great divide + 1921 Population

High ST Population : MP also high under forst area. High SC Population = UP, = High Irking Area = High population

A&N= ONGE = Negroids. Sikkim = Least population State. Census 2011 Slogan = Our Census, our future

Mishmi = Arunachal Pradesh ( MAP). Shrimp Capital = Nellore (AP)

Mumbai = 2 Railway HQs. Kunal-Kudam = Chennai = Russian Collaboration

Jaithapur Nuclear Reactors ( MH + Areva,French company ( 1650 mw. X 6)

Mahi River = Falls in Gulf of Khambat. Thorium – IND 1st – ( Monazite) found in Kerela coast

Smallest Dist= Mahe : Kachchh Dist. = largest in Area.

Nagaland = Eng Official language. BOD Means = High Organisms = High Pollution

Pyramid & Energy is always UP-right. Red Data book = IUCN = ENDANGERED Species.

Ramsar Convention =   Wetlands 1971. ECOTONE = Transition zone bet 2 ecosystem

Arsenic Toxicity = Bengal Basin. Heavy Metal pollution = Domestic sewerage

Oil Zapper : Remediation of oil spill in ocean 1984, Bhopal Gas Trasady = MIC ( Union Carbide) Mthyl Iso-cya-nate

1989, Helsinki Declaration = ozone layer protection. (Finland) + Vienna convention

CERES Principle = voluntary Environmental standard. Boeing = USA : Airbus = French, Toulouse

Cataract because of UV radiation. Rotterdam conference = hazardous Chemicals Elimination.

Kyoto Protocol = Carbon Credit Concept. GHG Gases = Max. Emitted by = AGRI.

Green Climate Fund = Concern = ( S. Korea). UNFCCC = 1992 = Earth Summit = Rio Summit

In 1996 , World Food Summit, FAO. Project Tiger = 1973 , 1992 = Elephant, 2011 Haathi mere saathi

UNEP = 1972= Nairobi ( Kenya) ( UN Environment Project). 1971 = UNESCO = Man and Biosphere prog.

5 June = Environment Day. Olive Ridley Turtles = Orissa Coast = Bhitarkanika

Lemur @ Madagascar  ONLY ( Endemic Species). Majuli Longest River Island in India in Assam.

Kaimur Wildlife sanctuary = Bihar. Mountain Railways in IND = 5

1909 – Minto morley = Separate Electorate. 1919 – Montague Chelmsford = Diarchy.

1773 – Regulating Act, 1784 = Pitts Act Supreme Court of IND. 1828 – Ant sati ( W. Bentick) 1856 – widow remarriage I.C. Vidya Sagar

Go I Act, 1935 = Charter of Slavery = Nehru. 26 Nov, 1949 – Constitution Completed ( 2,11,18) Dec, 1946

Governor Gen was given residency powers. 1929 – Mn roy ( Idea of constituent Assembly) = he introduced communist

Members in drafting committee= 7. USA = Federation = 1st constitution of World. INDIA = Union of states

Art. 112 = AFS (Budget). Annual Financial Statement. Finance Comm. = 280

22 July, 1947 = Flag adopted = by constituent Assembly. Rupees Sign = D. Uday Kumar (IIT Bombay)

M.S. Subbalaxmi = Sang @ 15 Aug. 1947 = Central Assembly. Jan-Gan-Man= 27 Dec 1911 – Calcutta. (RN Tagore 1913). 24 Jan 1950, Adopted

National Calendar (1 March – 28 Feb). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity = France = Included in Indian preamble.

1688 – Glorious Revolution, 1789 – French Revolution. 1750 – Industrial Revolution

Keshav Nand Bharti case: Life and liberty cannot be suspended (SC)

MMS – Minena Mill case – Secular – No Religion of Govt. Andhra – 1953 = 1st State on linguistic base. Treaty of Versailles. = 1919 = WWI

Writ = Enforcement of Funda. Rights by SC. Habeas corpus – Against illegal detention. Mandamus: on public office

Certiorari – lower court. NHRC, Chairman : CJI of India ( Retd.). Equality (14) > no discretion > opportunity > untouch-ability

Directive principles ( 36-51) Fund. Duties in constitution : record by Swaram Singh committee, 42 Amendment in 1976. ( Socialistic + Secular) Were Added (S-S-S)

Impeachment ¼ members of RS or LS regd. For initiation and 2/3 for impeachment

F.A. Ahmed – was president @ Emergency in 1975

IV A– Fundamental Duties. Part V = Supreme and high court

Consecutive 2 Times Vice prier – Dr. S. Radhdakrishnan

Council of Minister = Responsible to L.S. Anti Defection = Rajiv Gandhi = Art. 102 and 191 (52th Amendment 1985)

Parliament attack – 13 Dec, 2001. Japan parliament – Diet

Attorney Central – Can be invited to speech. CAG – Cannot speak

Zero hour = 1 hour = IMP matters. 1971 census is basis of L>S. Seats Applicable till 2026)

Art. 105 – privilages and Immunities. Finance bill = Revenue Collection. Arabian Peninsula = Biggest

16 Aug, 1946 = Direct Actions day, by MA Jinnah. 1946 – Navy Mutiny = Cabinet Mission

1906 – Muslim League = Aga Khan. Jan Sangh = Shyma Prasad Mukherjee

RSS – 1925 – Sh. Hegdewar. Indus Valley = Neolithic Age. 712 AD – M hd. Bin Kasim = Attacked Sindh. Shivaji Maharaj’s son = Raja Ram (Shivji + Ram)

Nana Sahib = Balaji Baji Rao. Gul Khan = Killed Guru Gobind Singh (1708) – Khalsa= 132 April 1699

Todar System = Todar mal= Measurement. 2/6 Sardesh Mukhi Tax and Chanth ¼ = Shivaji

Buddha = Light of Asia. 1875 = Arya Samaj = Dayanand Sarsvati ( MUL Shakar)

Jatak = 550 Stories. 1932 Gandhi = Harijan Singh = Communal Award Ramsay Mc Donald)

Sarv Siksha Abhiyam 9SSA) 65.35%. H2O is max density @ 40 C

1934 – Planned Economy for IND – M.Vishveveraya. Kathopanished = Dialogue Between Nachiketa and Yam.

SAARC HQ = Kathmandu ( Nepal). Optical Fibre = Narinder kapany. Potato is modified STEM. Asiatic Society – William Jones = Translated Gita to Eng.

1962 – TBP, 1963 – CBI. Portugese = Pondicherry (1st in india, 2nd Dutch, Eng & then French)

1498 – Portuguese. 1600- Eng. 1602 – Dutch. 1616 – Davish. 1664 – French-1644 – St. George Fort ( Eng.) Madras

Budget – Deptt. of Econ Affairs . 1 Barrel = 159 lit.

Bramhagupt = Gravity Discovered. Swami Ramanand had bhakti Saints as disciples

1927 – Simon Comm.  Sarvoday Samaj = Binova Bhave = Bhoodan Movement = 1st Individual Satya Grahi

Jhumar Dance – Haryana ; Thali Dance – HP. V.D. Savankar – Abhinav Bharat (1857 – called 1st war if Independence)

Barak Valley – Assam = Jute. 1952 – Family planning – Community Dev. Prog.

Asia > Africa > N. America. 29%      20%        16.3%

1 Astronomical Unit = 150 km ( million) = Distance between Sun & Earth. Light year = 9.46 x 1012 km

Washing Machine – Centrifugal force. Sn and Pb are used in Soldering

Cu+ Zn + Ni = German Silver. ZnO – Philosophers’ Wool. Meta-statis – spreading of Cancer Calls

Satluj enters @ Shipkila. 1954 = French = Dadra and N. Haveli

1st = Nuclear Reactor  Apsara. Jahangir = had installed a Chain of Justice

Prem Chand = Dhanpat Rai (karbala,Singram, Prem ki Bedi, Rangbhoomi, Karambhoomi, Goodan). Rubayiaat = Omar Khayyam.

Conquest of self = Gandhi. Annual Fin. Statement is laid before ( RS & LS) by President

Privilege motion Against minister = if Misleads / with-holds info.

R.S. can with hold finance bill by = 14 days R.S. Deputy Chairman = Elected by RS members.

Art. 243 = Municipalities; 1993 provision for Panchayats, Municipal

PIL = Non plaintiff (Complement) or defendant required.

2015-20 = 14 Finance Commission = YV Reddy. State centre Finance and Taxes

Phillips curve = Unemployment is inverse of inflation

Engels law: If income increases, then % Expenses on food goes down. Gini coefficient = measure of income disparity

Household Sector = High in Gross Domestic Savings. E – Choupal ( Electronic) : launched by ITC

Orissa has High poverty %. R.K. Shanmukham Chetty = 1st Budget of IND

B.N. Sri Krishna = 6th pay commission. 12 FYP starts in 2012 (12)

Green Vitriol = FE So4 7H2O. Blue Vitriol = Cu So4 5 H2O

Photoperiodism – Gardner and allured. Election Microscope : Knoll and Ruska. Stress = Force / Area

Hydraulic Brakes = Pascal law. An object between = Parallel Minor = infinite images

Soap Bubble = Multiple Refraction and Dispersion. C = F @ (-40)   C/5 =

Detergents reduce surface tension. DYSLEXIA = Normal vision but can’t READ

PV = nRT ( Wan Der Waals forces)

HF is used for Glass itching

Reducing Agent > Donates electron & adding H

Lichens = (Algae and fungi association)

Cloves = flower bid. Ranikhet Disease > Cattle’s Disease

SAARC > 8 Dec, 1985, Kathmandu.Rainbow Refraction and total Internal Reflection

NAARD : Sivanaman Committee. SEBI = 1988. Stagflation = Inflation and depression

Budhcharit = Ashvagosh. Amrit Bazaar patrika = Sishir kr. Gosh

Tilak = father of Indian unrest = ( Valentive Chirol). Plato of Jats = Surajmal. Napier = LOG ; Newton = Calculus ; Quantum Theory = Max plamek : Neutron = Chadwick

LASER = T H Maiman. ; Oppenheimer  Atom bomb

DDT = Zeidler ; heavy water = urey ( Project Manhattan)

US Nuclear bombs for JPN= Little boy & Fat Man

1957 = Sputnik ( USSR) in space. 1 HP = 746 walls ; Virus = Ivaonsky

Mutation Theory = Hugo De Vries. Blood Group : Landsteiner

Rectifier : Converts AC to DC. Green Revolution = Pamtnagar = UK = Agriuniv ( 1st of IND 1960)

Bombay Plan = Tata and Birla Groups ( For Econ. Dev.)

3rd FYP  = Gadgil Plan ( 1st = Harrod damor 2nd = Mahalanobis 3rd Gadgil Plan)

Sarvodya Plan = JAI Prakash Narayan.  People’s Plan = M N Roy. 12 yp = Faster , Sustainable and more inclusive growth

Rolling Plan concept ( 1978) = Gunnar Myrdal. Final Authority on FYP = NDC ( National Develop. Council)

Thermal/Coal = High (75% in IND). Railways = Eam Most by goods/ Material

IAY = Indira Awas yojana ( Centre : 75%, State = 25%). 2nd FYP = Heavy Industries ; 1st = Agri/ erring / projects

3rd FYP = HYVP = Green Revolution. PDS = 1965 = FCI ; ( Buy price = Procurement Price ; Selling Price issue price)

TPDS = 1997 ( APL/BPL). NAIS = 1999 ; KCC – 1998 ; Kisan Call Centre 18001801551

NAFED = Pulses, Oil and Onion ( Procurement and selling). National Seed Policy = 2002

NFSM > national food security mission. (2007-08). CONCUR = Container corporation of India = Railways

Corus > Acquired by TATA. Mittal steel acquired > Arcelor

POSCO = s. Korea = Steal project @ Orissa 50,000 crore. Agamal = Vendanta Group = Aluminium etc.

ASIA 1st export processing Zone @ KANDLA, GJ. Temzing gastno = Dalai Lama = 1959 came to India

MNRE95 = Food for work prog. Added.      TRYSEM = 1979, NREP – 1980, SGSY = 1999

NHRM = 2005. FEMA replace FERA = import / export central. NIKKEI – Tokyo Exchange

Dow Jones – USA, SENSEX ( BSE). 1805 – Traflgar War  Nelson. 480 BC – Thermopylae War ( Leonides VS Xerxes)

1455 – 1485 – War of roses. 1750 – Industrial Revolution

1688- Glorious Revolution ( Bloodless). 1789 – French Revolution. 1852 mts. – 1 nautical Mile

Source: Prof. Abhishek Chauhan (compiled Notes)


Continent Density person/sq. km
Asia 108
Europe 101
South America 21
Africa 20
North America 14
Oceania 3
Rank Country Area (lakh sq km)
1. Russia 170
2. Canada 99
3. United States 96
4. China 95
5. Brazil 85
6. Australia 76
7.         India 32
8. Argentina 27
9. Kazakhstan 27
10. Sudan 25
S.N Country Population
in million
1 China 1,306
2 India 1,080
3 United States 295
4 Indonesia 241
5 Brazil 186
6 Pakistan 162
7 Bangladesh 144
8 Russia 143
9 Nigeria 128
10 Japan 127




Minerals & Their Largest Producers
1. Graphite Madagascar
2. Gold South Africa, Australia
3. Platinum South Africa, Canada.
4. Chromium South Africa, Russia
5. Diamond South Africa, Republic of Congo & Australia
6. Zinc Canada, Australia
7. Uranium Canada, USA, Australia, Niger, France, South Africa
8. Nickel Canada, Russia, Australia, USA.
9. Coal China, USA, India, Russia
10. Steel China
11. Iron Ore China, Brazil, Australia.
12. Cement China
13. Manganese China, South Africa, Australia.
14. Paper Canada
15. Hydro Power Canada, USA, (Norway highest %age User)
16. Tungsten China, Thailand, Korea
17. Asbestos Canada Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe
18. Natural Gas Russia, Canada, Algeria, Iran
19. Flax Russia
20. Tantalum Australia
21. Bauxite Australia, Guinea, Jamaica & Brazil.
22. Lead Australia, China, US
23. Cadmium Canada
24. Antimony China
25. Uranium (Reser.) Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa
26. Zirconium Australia Brazil
27. Titanium (Rutile) *Australia*
28. Iron China, Brazil, Australia
29. Copper Chile, United States, Canada, Armenia, Zambia, Zaire
30. Tin China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Malaysia
31. Silver Mexico, Peru, Chile & Poland.
32. Mercury Spain, China, Italy.
33. Sulphur Mexico, USA & Poland
34. Rock Phosphate USA, Peru (Guano).
Agricultural Commodities & Their Largest Producer
1. Milk India
2. Coffee Brazil, Vietnam
3. Tobacco China, turkey
4. Pork China
5. Rice (export) Thailand, Vietnam
6. Rice China, India
7. Banana India, Brazil
8. Banana (Export) Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Columbia
9. Maize USA, China
10. Wheat China
11. Cork Portugal
12. Palm Oil Malaysia
13. Fresh Water Fish Russia
14. Barley Germany, Canada, Russia, France
15. Tea (Exporter) Sri Lanka
16. Rubber Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia
17. Paper USA
18. Pulp (Export) Canada
19. Paper (Export) Canada
20. Sugar India, Brazil, Cuba
21. Sugar (Export) Cuba
22. Oil Palm Malaysia, Indonesia
23. Oil Palm (import) India
24. Cotton China, USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan in that order.
25. Cotton (export) USA
26. Mangoes India
27. Manila Hemp (Abaca) Philippines (75%)
28. Raw Silk China, Japan, India, Korea.
29. Tobacco China, USA, India
30. Oranges USA, Brazil
31. Oats Russia
32. Millets India
33. Rye Russia
34. Sorghum USA
35. Pulses India
36. Sugarcane Brazil
37. Tea India, China
38. Dates Iran, Egypt
39. Olives Spain
40. Wine (Exporter) *Algeria*
41. Wine (Producer) Italy, France
42. Coconut Indonesia, Philippines,
43. Grapes Italy, France
44. Potato China
45. Soyabeens U.S.A, Brazil
1. Island of Cloves Zanzibar
2. Land of Lilies Canada
3. Land of Golden Fleece Australia
4. Port of Five Seas Moscow
5. Island of Pearls Bahrain
6. Hermit Kingdom Korea
7. Land of Golden Pagoda Yangoon (Myanmar)
8. City of Canals Venice
9. Holy Land Palestine
10. Herring Pond Atlantic
11. City of Golden Gate Sand Francisco
12. City of dreaming Spires Oxford
13. Land of Canals Netherlands
14. Empire city New York
15. Land of Cakes Scotland
16. Land of Eskimos Greenland
17. Island of Pearls Bahrain
18. Granite City Aberdeen, Scotland
19. Garden of England Kent
20. Cockpit of Europe Belgium
21. City of brotherly Love Philadelphia
22. City of Magnificent Distances Washington DC
23. Gateway of tears Bab-el-Mandab
24. Textile Capital of Russia Ivanovo
25. Manchester of Japan Osaka (Textile)
26. Emerald City Ireland
27. The pearl of the Antilles Cuba

Highest Peaks in Various Regions/ Mountain Chains

1. Africa Mt. Kilimanjaro
2. North America Mt. McKinley
3. Europe Mt. Elbrus
4. Antarctica Mt. Vinson
5. Asia Mt. Everest
6. Oceania Mt. Carstensz
7. South America Mt. Aconcagua
8. Australia Mt. Kosciusko
9. Urals Mt. Gora Naradnaya
10. Alps Mt. Mont Blanc
11. Andes Mt. Aconcagua
12. Rockies Mt. Elbert
13. Appalachians Mt. Mitchell
14. South West Asia (Elbruz Chain) Mt. Demavand
Important Places/Regions & Their Locations
1. Llanos Tropical Grasslands of Venezuela
2. Campos Tropical grasslands of Brazil
3. Iberian Peninsula Spain
4. Katanga basin Democratic republic of Congo
5. Canterbury Plain Largest lowland area of New Zealand
6. Chaco / Gran Chaco Low, flat, arid region covering Argentina Paraguay &
7. Kra Peninsula Malaysia
8. Parana region Brazil –Largest producer of wheat, corn cotton
9. Matto grosso Thick jungle in west central brazil north of Bolivia.
10. Dogger bank Shallow fishing area in north sea, 100km off UK
11. Grand bank Shallow fishing area off new foundland, Canada
12. Georges bank Near bay of fundy & Gulf of Maine
13. Nordic Countries Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Denmark.
14. Ob, Yenisey & Lena Major rivers of Russia
15. Sarawak, Sabah, Labuan These three states make up east Malaysia.
16. Yucatan Peninsula Mexico
17. Ozark Plateau heavily forested upland region, between the Missouri and
Arkansas rivers
18. Sinai Peninsula In north eastern Egypt.
Tribes of the World
1. Kalmuks Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas – pastoral
2. Kirghiz Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs
3. Gauchos Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay.
4. Mestizos People of mixed white & Indian parentage
5. Ostyaks West Siberian tribe
6. Pygmies Congo basin – Zaire, Congo, Gabon.
7. Boro Amazon basin-sub group of red Indians.
8. Semang Malaysia
9. Papuans New Guinea
10. Bushmen or San Kalahari – Namibia, Botswana, Angola
11. Bedouins Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East
12. Masai East Africa – Kenya, Uganda
13. Kirghiz Central Asia. Muslim by faith
14. Saami or Lapps Norway, Sweden, Finland – Also known as Laplanders
15. Yuti Siberia
16. Chukchi Far Eastern Siberia
17. Yakuts Tundra region of Russia
18. Aleut Aleutian Islands
19. Yuit Siberia
20. Inuit Greenland, Canada & Siberia
21. Samoyed West Siberia
22. Punan Borneo
23. Afrikaner/Boer Dutch race in S. Africa
24. Afridis N. West Pakistan
25. Veddas Racial stock of Sri Lanka
26. Bantus Central & southern Africa – Swahili is Bantu derived language.
27. Berbers Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia
28. Maori New Zealand
29. Bindibu Western Australia
30. Cossacks Russia around black & Caspian Sea
31. Magyar Inhabitants of Hungary
32. Croats Croatia
33. Flemish Belgium
34. Finns European Tundra
35. Hamites N-W Africa – Dark skinned muslims
36. Hottentots/khoi khoi Tropical Africa
37. Kaffris S. Africa – known as martial race
38. Kikuyu Kenya’s most populous ethnic group
39. Masuds Waziristan region, Pakistan
40. Mestizos People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America
41. Amerinds N. America – People of mixed European & Indian blood
42. Mulatto Mixed European & black blood in South America
43. Moors Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco
43. Semites Jews & Ethiopians
44. Tartar Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia
45. Zambas People of African & Native American Indian in S. America
46. Zulus People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa
47. Akka Democratic republic of Congo
48. Oromo or Galla African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya
49. Uygur Turkic people inhabiting N-W china & Kazakhstan.
50. Kubu Inhabitants of Sumatra
51. Fulani/Fula Cattle herders of Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea or Chad
52. Buryat Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic.
53. Aeta Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous)
54. Ainu Caucasoids of Japan.
55. Yanomamo Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela
Minerals & Their Ores
1. Iron Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe304), limonite & Siderite
2. Nickel Millerite, Pentlandite
3. Manganese Pyrolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane
4. Antimony Stibnite
5. Titanium Rutile
6. Chromium Chromite
7. Uranium Pitchblende (UO2)
8. Lead Galena
9. Thorium Thorianite, Monazite, Allanite, Ilemnite
10. Zinc Calamine, Sphalerite
11. Mercury Cinnabar
12. Beryllium Beryl, chrysoberyl
13. Cobalt Smalitite, Cobaltite
14. Lithium Spodumene
15. Magnesium Magnesite, Dolomite, Kieserite, Carnallite.
16. Potassium Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O)
17. Silver Argentite
18. Sodium Chile Saltpeter (NaNO3)
19. Tin Cassiterite
Major Discontinuities within the earth
1. Conrad Discontinuity Between outer & inner crust
2. Mohorovicic Discontinuity Between crust & mantle
3. Repetti Discontinuity Between outer & inner mantle
4. Weichart-Gutenberg Discontinuity Between mantle & core
5. Lehmann Discontinuity Between outer & inner core.
Important Isopleths
1. Isogones Equal magnetic declination
2. Isohel Equal amount of sunlight.
3. Isobront Thunderstorm at the same time
4. Isocheim Same mean winter temperature
5. Isothere Same mean summer temperature
6. Isanomal Isopleth of Anomaly
7. Isochrones Equal travel time from a common center.
8. Isohypse Or Contour lines
9. Isonif Amount of Snow
10. Isophene Isopleths of seasonal phenomena
11. Isopotential Surface to which artesian water can rise
12. Isorymes Equal frost
13. Isarithm A line representing continuous value on map
14. Isonephs Equal cloudiness
15. Co-seismal lines Simultaneous seismic activity
16. Isohypse Or contours
17. Isopach Equal thickness of geological strata
18. Isotach Same wind speed
19. Isotherombrose Equal ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall
20. Isochasm Equal frequency of aurorae
21. Isodynamic Equal magnetic intensity
22. Isogen Equal birthrates
23. Isokeraunic Equal occurrence of thunderstorms
Places & Their Importance
1. Yorkshire woollen textile
2. Lancashire cotton textile
3. Glasgow ship building
4. Sheffield Cutlery & steel works
5. Lorraine Iron ore (France)
6. Lyon Silk Industry (France)
7. Silesia Coal (Poland) – high grade
8. Lodz Manchester of Poland
9. Hamburg Ship Building (Germany)
10. Stuttgart Automobile (Germany)
11. Munich Instruments (Germany)
12. Karl Marx Stadt Textile (Germany)
13. Sambre-Meuse Coal (Belgium)
14. Marseilles Oil Refinery
15. Baku Capital city of Azerbaijan & chief refining center.
16. Chicago Biggest railway junction
17. Detroit Automobile
18. Seattle Aircraft
19. Cadiz Cork (Spain)
20. Changchun Automobile & machine tools (China)
21. Chelyabinsk Iron & Steel (Russia)
22. Dresden Optical, Photo & Graphic instruments (Germany)
23. Dusseldorf Iron & Steel (Germany)
24. Essen Iron & Steel (Germany)
25. Essex Engineering works (England)
26. Kharkov Machine building & Engineering (Ukraine)
27. Kiev Engineering (Ukraine)
28. Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (Russia)
29. Nagoya Cotton & Ship building (Japan)
30. Nizhny Tagil Iron & Steel (Russia)
31. Venice Glass Industry
32. Vienna Glass Industry
33. Philadelphia Locomotives (USA)
34. Plymouth Shipbuilding (USA)
35. Yenang Yang Oil Drilling (Myanmar)
36. Gorky / Nizhny Novogorod Engineering Industry.
37. Belfast Ship building (Ireland)

Major Natural Regions

1. Equatorial Lowland Amazon Type
2. Equatorial Highland Malay Type
3. Equatorial High Plateaus Ecuador Type
4. Tropical Eastern Margin Monsoon Type
5. Tropical Interiors Sudan Type
6. Tropical Western Deserts Sahara Type
7. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Western Margins Mediterranean Type
8. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Eastern Margin China Type
9. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Lowland Turan Type
10. Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Plateau Iran Type
11. Cool Temperate Western Margin European Type
12. Cool Temperate Eastern Margin St. Lawrence Type
13. Cool Temperate Interior Lowland Prairie Type
14. Cool Temperate Interior Highland Altai Type
15. Cool Temperate High Plateau Tibet Type
16. Polar Lowland Tundra Type
17. Polar Highland Ice Cap Type
Major Deserts
S. Desert Location
1. Sahara Northern Africa
2. Gobi Mongolia/Northeastern China
3. Patagonian Argentina
4. Rub‘ Al Khali Southern Arabian Peninsula
5. Great Sandy Northwestern Australia
6. Great Victoria Southwestern Australia
7. Chihuahuan Mexico/Southwestern United States
8. Takla Makan Northern China
9. Sonoran Mexico/Southwestern United States
10. Kalahari Southwestern Africa
11. Kyzyl Kum Uzbekistan
12. Thar India/Pakistan
13. Simpson Australia
14. Mohave Southwestern United States
15. Nafud Desert Arabian Peninsula
16. Dasht-I-Kavir Iran
Planets & satellites
1. Mars Deimos, Phobos
2. Jupiter Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Io
3. Saturn Titan, Tethys, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione
4. Uranus Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel
5. Neptune Triton
6. Pluto Charon
Highest Waterfalls of the World
Waterfall Location Total drop (m)
Angel Falls Venezuela 979
Yosemite Falls United States 739
Mardalsfossen-South Norway 655
Thukela (Tugela) Falls South Africa 614
Cuquenan Venezuela 610
Sutherland New Zealand 580
Worlds Largest Lakes
1. Caspian Sea, Asia
2. Lake Superior North America
3. Lake Victoria Africa
4. Lake Huron North America
5. Lake Michigan North America
6. Lake Tanganyika Burundi (N), Zambia (S), DMC (W)
7. Great Bear Lake North America
8. Lake Baikal Asia
9. Aral Sea Asia
10. Great Slave Lake North America

 Tables’s Source: G. Tori



Detailed notes of Psychology:

Enculturation refers to all learning that takes

place without direct, deliberate teaching.


authoritarian and democratic or permissive

parenting styles

Acculturation refers to cultural and

psychological changes resulting from contact

with other cultures.

Integration : It refers to an attitude in

which there is an interest in both, maintaining

ones original culture and identity, while

staying in daily interaction with other cultural

groups. In this case, there is some degree of

cultural integrity maintained while interacting

with other cultural groups

Assimilation : It refers to an attitude,

which people do not wish to maintain their

cultural identity, and they move to become

an integral part of the other culture. In this

case, there is loss of ones culture and identity

Separation : It refers to an attitude in

which people seem to place a value on holding

on to their original culture, and wish to avoid

interaction with other cultural groups. In this

case, people often tend to glorify their cultural


Marginalisation : It refers to an attitude in which there is little possibility or interest

in oneís cultural maintenance, and littlei nterest in having relations with other cultural

groups. In this case, people generally remain  undecided about what they should do, and

continue to stay with a great deal of stress

centration, i.e. focusing on a single

characteristic or feature for understanding an


egocentrism (self focus), i.e. children see the world only in terms

of their own selves and are not able to

appreciate others point of view. Children

because of egocentrism, engage in animism

girls from affluent families go through

menarche earlier than girls from poor families;

and historical trends show that the age of

menarche is declining in industrialised nations

reflecting better nutrition and advances in

medical care

Delinquency : Delinquency refers to a

variety of behaviours, ranging from socially

unacceptable behaviour, legal offences, to

criminal acts

Theories of Selective Attention

Filter theory was developed by Broadbent

Filter-attenuation theory was developed

by Triesman (1962) by modifying Broadbentís theory

Multimode theory was developed by

Johnston and Heinz

The process by

which we recognise, interpret or give meaning

to the information provided by sense organs is

called perception

Suppose in the vicinity of your

residence a marriage is being performed. It

generates a lot of noise, which continues till

late night. In the beginning, the noise distracts

you from whatever you are doing. You feel

disturbed. While the noise continues, you

make some orienting reflexes. These reflexes

become weaker and weaker, and eventually

become undetectable. This is also one kind of

behavioural change. This change is due to

continuous exposure to stimuli. It is called


The simplest kind of learning is

called conditioning. Two types of conditioning

have been identified. The first one is called

classical conditioning, and the second

instrumental/operant conditioning. In

addition, we have observational learning,

cognitive learning, verbal learning, concept

learning, and skill learning.

insight learning ñ the process by which the

solution to a problem suddenly becomes clear

In latent learning, a new

behaviour is learned but not demonstrated

until reinforcement is provided for displaying


To help those suffering

from excessive anxieties and fears, the

technique of systematic desensitisation is


In order to eliminate

habits that are undesirable and injurious for

health and happiness, aversion therapy is


Persons suffering from

excessive shyness and having difficulties in

interpersonal interactions are subjected to

assertive learning


model of memory, which was proposed by

Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. It is known as

Stage Model

help, and to

become members of their group. Seeking other

human beings and wanting to be close to them

both physically and psychologically is called


The close emotional bond of

affection that develop between infants and

their parents (caregivers) is called


If the

parents are sensitive, affectionate, and

accepting, it provides the infant a strong base

to explore the environment. Such infants are

likely to develop a secure attachment.

There are various views on human motivation,

the most popular among these is given by

Abraham H. Maslow ( ìTheory of Self-actualisation )

A self-actualised person is selfaware, socially responsive, creative,

spontaneous, open to novelty, and challenge.

S/he also has a sense of humour and capacity

for deep interpersonal relationships

frustration-aggression is a very famous

hypothesis proposed by Dollard and Miller

pproach-approach conflict comes from

having to choose between two positives and desirable alternatives. Avoidance-avoidance

conflict comes from choosing between two

negatives, or mutually undesirable

alternatives. In real life, these double

avoidance conflicts involve dilemmas such as

choosing between the dentist and tooth decay,

roadside food and starvation, etc. Approach avoidance conflict comes from being attracted

to and repelled by the same goal or activity.

These types of conflicts are also difficult to

resolve, as they are more troublesome than

avoidance conflicts. A central characteristic of

approach-avoidance conflict is ambivalence ó

a mix of positive and negative conflicts

James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that

environmental stimuli elicit physiological

responses from viscera (the internal organs

like heart and lungs), which in turn, are

associated with muscle movement.

The Cannon-Bard theory claims that the

entire process of emotion is mediated by

thalamus which after perception of the

emotion-provoking stimulus, conveys this

information simultaneously to the cerebral

cortex and to the skeletal muscles and

sympathetic nervous system

Enculturation refers to all learning that takes place without direct, deliberate teaching.enculturation refers to all learning that occurs in human life because of its availability in our socio-cultural context.


With increased migration, individuals are not only socialised once, but are often re-socialised differently in their life-span. This process is known as acculturation. In the case of socialisation, the learning involves deliberate teaching. In the case of enculturation, teaching is not necessary for learning to take place. school is being viewed as a more important agent of child socialisation than parents and family.

Qualities like sharing, trust, mutual understanding, role acceptance and fulfilment develop in interaction with peers. Development of self-identity is greatly facilitated by the peer group. Since communication of children with peer group is direct, process of socialisation is generally smooth. Acculturation refers to cultural and psychological changes resulting from contact with other cultures.

e.g British Rule In India. Acculturation also referred to as re – socialisation. For any acculturation to take place contact with another cultural group is essential.At the objective level, changes are reflected in people’s day-to-day behaviours and activities. These are referred to as acculturation strategies. John Berry is well-known for his studies on psychological acculturation.

Marginalisation : It refers to an attitude in which there is little possibility or interest in one’s cultural maintenance, and little interest in having relations with other cultural groups. In this case, people generally remain undecided about what they should do, and continue to stay with a great deal of stress.

While genes write the script of biological transmissions, memes write the script of cultural transmissions. Phenotype is the way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observable and measurable

Phenotypes include physical traits, such as height, weight, eye and skin colour, and many of the psychological characteristics such as intelligence, creativity, and personality.

urie bronfenbenners – role of environmental factors in development of an individual. He divided it into full :

micro system : immediate environment into which a child lives . it is intros environment where in child directly interacts with socialising agents like family , friends , peers etc.

meso system : relation between various socialising  agent of child like parents teacher relation , how his parents see his peers .

exo system : where in child does not participate  but it affects him like transfer of parents

macro system : he culture in which the individual lives

Chronosystem involves events in the individual’s life course, and socio-historical circumstances of the time such as, divorce of parents or parents’ economic setback, and their effect on the child.

Durganand Sinha (1977) has presented an ecological model for understanding the development of children in Indian context.

Developmental stages are assumed to be temporary and are often characterised by a dominant feature or a leading characteristic, which gives each period its uniqueness

developmental tasks : certain patterns of behaviour and certain skills are learned more easily and successfully during certain stages. These accomplishments of a person become the social expectations of that stage of development.

Prenatal Stage : lasts for 40 weeks.

teratogens : environmental agents that cause deviations in normal development and can lead to serious abnormalities.e.g radiations , taking of drugs by reg women.

child uphill 3 months can distinguish between red and white colour only .

Rooting : Turning the head and opening the mouth when touched on the cheek

Moro: If there is a loud noise, the baby will throw her/his arms outward

while arching her/his back, and then bring the arms together as if grasping something.

Babinski : When the bottom of the baby’s foot is stroked, the toes fan out and

then curl

it is the different way of thinking which makes one stage more advanced than the other and not the amount of information

object permanence — the awareness that the objects continue to exist when not perceived. child lacks it as when his toy is hidden he never searches for it and perceives that it never existed.

cephalocaudally, i.e. from the cephalic or head region to the caudal or tail region. Children gain control over the upper part of the body before the lower part. This is why you would notice that the infant’s head is proportionately larger than her/his body.

proximodistal trend : growth process from centre of body towards extremities.

egocentrism (self- focus), i.e. children see the world only in terms of their own selves and are not able to appreciate others’ point of view.

Children because of egocentrism, engage in animism – thinking that all things are living, like oneself. For example, if a child while running slips on the road, s/he might show animism by saying “road hurt me”.

Why is the sky blue? How do trees grow? and so on. Such questions help the child to know why things are as they are. Piaget called this the stage of intuitive thought. Another feature of thought during preoperational stage is characterised by children having a tendency for centration, i.e. focusing on a single characteristic or feature for understanding an event. For example, a child may insist on drinking a “big glass” of juice, preferring a tall narrow glass to a short broad one, even though both might be holding the same amount of juice.

Delinquency : Delinquency refers to a variety of behaviours, ranging from socially unacceptable behaviour, legal offences, to criminal acts. Examples include truancy, running away from home, stealing or burglary or acts of vandalism.

y an important role in preventing drug abuse. In India, a successful anti-drug programme is the Society for Theatre in Education Programme in New Delhi. It uses street performances to entertain people between 13 to 25 years of age while teaching them how to say no to drugs.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.

bulimia nervosa refers to eating and vomiting

knowledge of the world around us depends on three basic processes, called sensation, attention, and perception. 2 of the 7 sense organs  kinesthetic and vestibular systems. They provide us with important information about our body position and movement of body parts related to each other. With these seven sense organs, we register ten different variety of stimuli. For example, you may notice whether a light is bright or dim.

psycho physics studies the relation between sensory organ and sensation. in order to be noticed a stimulus has to have a minimum weight or value . the minimum value of stimulus required to activate a given sensory system is called absolute threshold or absolute limen.

The smallest difference in the value of two stimuli that is necessary to notice them as different is called difference threshold or difference limen (DL).

Our eyes are sensitive to a spectrum of light, the wavelength of which ranges from 380 nm to 780 nm.

kinaesthetic system ; in joints , ligaments and muscles , gives location of our body parts . e.g touching ones nose.

vestibular systems – located in our ear.gives a sense of position movement and acceleration of the body.

The process through which certain stimuli are selected from a group of others is generally referred to as attention.

when you go to fetch your younger sister and brother from the school, you just look for them among innumerable boys and girls. All these activities require some kind of effort on the part of people. Attention in this sense refers to “effort allocation”.

Automatic processing has three main characteristics; (i) It occurs without intention, (ii) It takes place unconsciously, and (iii) It involves very little (or no) thought processes

Motivational factors relate to our biological or social needs. When we are hungry, we notice even a faint smell of food. A student taking an examination is likely to focus on a teacher’s instructions more than other students.

filter theory was developed by Broadbent (1956). According to this theory, many stimuli simultaneously enter our receptors creating a kind of “bottleneck” situation.

one’s name in a collective dinner) can be noticed even at a very low level of sound this is filter attention theory.

sustained attention is known as vigilance.Air traffic controllers and radar readers provide us with good examples of this phenomenon.

Temporal uncertainty is a third factor. When stimuli appear at regular intervals of time they are attended better than when they appear at irregular intervals.

Spatial uncertainty is a fourth factor. Stimuli that appear at a fixed place are readily attended, whereas those that appear at random locations are difficult to attend.

A drug, called Ritalin, is widely used, which decreases children’s over-activity and distractibility, and at the same time increases their attention and ability to concentrate.

adhd – attention deficit hyper attention  disorder.

The process by which we recognise, interpret or give meaning to the information provided by sense organs is called perception.

perceptual sets – if your milkman delivers you milk daily at about 5.30 A.M., any knocking at the door around that time is likely to be perceived as the presence of the milkman even if it is someone else.

we see a bicycle as a complete object, not as a collection of different parts (e.g., saddle, wheel, handle). The process of organising visual field into meaningful wholes is known as form perception.

Gestalt psychologists. Prominent among them are Köhler, Koffka, and Wertheimer. Gestalt means a regular figure or a form.

that human beings perceive the world in organised wholes rather than in discrete parts.

The Principle of Smallness

According to this principle, smaller areas tend to be seen as figures against a larger background.

Aerial Perspective : The air contains microscopic particles of dust and moisture that make distant objects look hazy or blurry. This effect is called aerial perspective.

Motion Parallax : It is a kinetic monocular cue, and hence not considered as a pictorial cue. It occurs when objects at different distances move at a different relative speed. The distant objects appear to move slowly than the objects  that are close. The rate of an object’s movement provides a cue to its distance. For example, when we travel in a bus, closer objects move “against” the direction of the bus, whereas the farther objects move “with” the direction of the bus.

Perception of the objects as relatively stable in spite of changes in the stimulation of sensory receptors is called perceptual constancy.

illusions are also called “primitive organisations. the rail tracks appear to be converging to all of us. These illusions are called universal illusions or permanent illusions

PHI PHENOMENON – When some motionless pictures are projected one after the other at an appropriate rate.

habits of perception are learnt differently in different cultural settings.

interpretation of pictures is strongly related to cultural experiences of people. While people in general can recognise familiar objects in pictures, those less exposed to pictures have difficulty in the interpretation of actions or events depicted in them.


always involves some kinds of experience.

learning is an inferred process and is different from performance.

classical conditioning – bell dog experiment. one stimuli initiates the stimuli. this is also called s-s learning. on stimuli becomes signal for other stimuli.

Operants are those behaviours or responses, which are emitted by animals and human beings voluntarily and are under their control.

Children learn to be polite and say ‘please’ to get favours from their parents and others. One learns to operate mechanical gadgets such as radio, camera, T.V., etc. based on the principle of instrumental conditioning.

Positive reinforcement involves stimuli that have pleasant consequences. They strengthen and maintain the responses that have caused them to occur. Positive reinforcers satisfy needs, which include food, water, medals, praise, money, status, information, etc. Negative reinforcers involve unpleasant and painful stimuli. Responses that lead organisms to get rid of painful stimuli or avoid and escape from them provide negative reinforcement. Thus, negative reinforcement leads to learning of avoidance and escape responses. For instance, one learns to put on woollen clothes, burn firewood or use electric heaters to avoid the unpleasant cold weather.

in many situations individuals do not know how to behave. They observe others and emulate their behaviour. This form of learning is called modeling.

in observational learning observers acquire knowledge by observing the model’s behaviour, but performance is influenced by model’s behaviour being rewarded or punished.

insight learning, a problem is presented, followed by a period of time when no apparent progress is made and finally a solution suddenly emerges. In insight learning, sudden solution is the rule. Once the solution has appeared, it can be repeated immediately the next time the problem is confronted.

In latent learning, a new behaviour is learned but not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided for displaying it.- rat and maze experiment.

Paired-Associates Learning : This method is similar to S-S conditioning and S-R learning. It is used in learning some foreign language equivalents of mother tongue words.

Free Recall : This method is used to study how participants organise words for storage in memory. Studies indicate that the items placed in the beginning or end of the lists are easier to recall than those placed in the middle, which are more difficult to recall.

total time principle operates. This principle states that a fixed amount of time is necessary to learn a fixed amount of material, regardless of the number of trials into which that time is divided. The more time it takes to learn, the stronger becomes the learning.

a square consists of four features connected by a conjunctive rule.

One of the most influential accounts of the phases of skill acquisition is presented by Fitts. According to him, skill learning passes through three phases, viz. cognitive, associative and autonomous. Each phase or stage of skill learning involves different types of mental processes. In the cognitive phase of skill learning, the learner has to understand and memorise the instructions, and also understand how the task has to be performed. In this phase, every outside cue, instructional demand, and one’s response outcome have to be kept alive in consciousness.

The second phase is associative. In this phase, different sensory inputs or stimuli are linked with appropriate responses. As the practice increases, errors decrease, performance improves and time taken is also reduced. With continued practice, errorless performance begins, though, the learner has to be attentive to all the sensory inputs and maintain concentration on the task. Then the third phase, i.e. autonomous phase, begins. In this phase, two important changes take place in performance: the attentional demands of the associative phase decrease, and interference created by external factors reduces. Finally, skilled performance attains automaticity with minimal demands on conscious.practice is the only means of skill learning.

Motivation is a prerequisite for learning.

motivation for learning something arises from two sources. You learn many things because you enjoy them (intrinsic motivation) or they provide you the means for attaining some other goal (extrinsic motivation).

Perceptual Modality are biologically-based

reactions to the physical environment. It refers to the preferences of persons through which they take in information such as auditory, visual, smell, kinesthetic, and tactile.

people with a relational style learn material best through exposure to a full unit or phenomenon. They comprehend parts of the unit only by understanding their relationship to the whole. On the other hand, people with an analytical learning style learn more easily when information is presented step by step in a cumulative sequential pattern that builds towards a conceptual understanding.

in schools analytical style is used.

dyslexia. They quite often fail to copy letters and words; for example, they fail to distinguish between b and d,

Implosive therapy starts with the person imagining their most feared form of contact with the feared object, accompanied by vivid verbal descriptions by the therapist. The therapist functions as a coach. On the other hand, flooding is exposure that takes place in vivo (e.g., with an actual feared object) and is considered to be the most effective of all treatments for fear. To help those suffering from excessive anxieties and fears, the technique of systematic desensitisation is used.

In order to eliminate habits that are undesirable and injurious for health and happiness, aversion therapy is used. The therapist arranges things in such a way that occurrence of maladjustive habits generates painful experiences and to avoid them clients learn to give them up. For example, alcohol is paired with an emetic drug (which induces severe nausea and vomiting) so that nausea and vomiting become a conditioned response to alcohol.

Persons suffering from excessive shyness and having difficulties in interpersonal interactions are subjected to assertive learning

There are persons who lose mental peace with accelerated rate of breathing, loss of appetite, and rise in blood pressure at the slightest provocation. In such cases psychotherapists give biofeedback treatment. This technique is based on the interaction between classical and instrumental conditioning. In biofeedback, a bodily function (such as heart rate or blood pressure) is monitored and information about the function is fed back to the person to facilitate improved control of the physiological process.

stage model – first model on memory developed by Atkinson and Shirfin. in 1968. Acc to the Stage Model, there are three memory systems : the Sensory Memory, the Short-term Memory and the Longterm Memory.

attention leads to short term memory ( 30 seconds ), rehearsals leads to long term memory ( life time ) … flash of light even when bulb is off is sensory memory.( less than one second )

selective attention,  is the first control process that decides what will travel from sensory registers to STM

Chunking – process of breaking down of information into recognising symbols or date or names so that it could be retained easily later..e.g 194719492004 can be remembered as 1947,1949,2004.

through chunking it is possible to expand short term memory.

from sensory memory information is stored to short term memory by rehearsal maintainance whereas from short term memory to long term it is done through elaborative rehearsals.

Episodic memory contains biographical details of our lives. Memories relating to our personal life experiences constitute the episodic memory and it is for this reason that its contents are generally emotional in nature.

flash bulb memory – memories of events that are very surprising and arousal., detailed like a photo.like images frozen in memory.

Autobiographical memory – relates to a particular period and are not evenly distributed throughghout life

childhood amnesia – no memory in child for  a period of 4 to 5 years.

Implicit memory – memory of which a person is not aware of and it retrieves automatically…like a typist members the keys accurately while typing but can not put them in exact order when goven on blank page.

Semantic memory, on the other hand, is the memory of general awareness and knowledge. All concepts, ideas and rules of logic are stored in semantic memory. For instance, it is because of semantic memory that we remember the meaning of say ‘non- violence’ or remember that 2+6=8 or the STD code of New Delhi is 011 or that the word ‘elaphant’ is misspelt.

Priming is method to measure memory – for measuring information that we cannot speak verbally like playing guitar , riding bicycle.

Concepts are mental categories for objects and events, which are similar to each other in one or in more than one way.

all concrete objects (and concepts) generate images and the knowledge related to them is encoded both verbally as well as

visually. This is known as dual coding hypothesis,e.g school.

According to this hypothesis, concrete nouns and information related to concrete objects ar e encoded and stored in the form of images while information related to abstract concepts assume a verbal and a descriptive code.

schema refers to the past knowledge and experiences which influences the  way information is interpreted, stored, and later retrieved.

Trace Decay Theory – earliest theory on forgetting . When these memory traces are not used for a long time, they simply fade away and become unavailable.

Forgetting due to interference – one of the most influential theory on forgetting. one forgets because of the competition between two remembered thing to get retrieved while recalling.

‘fugue state’. Persons who become victims of such a state assume a new identity, name, address, etc. They have two personalities and one knows nothing about the other.

Craik and Lockhart have demonstrated that processing information in terms of meaning that they convey leads to better memory as compared to attending to their surface features.

Thomas and Robinson have developed another strategy to help students in remembering more which they called the methods of PQRST. This acronym stands for Preview, Question, Read, Self-recitation, and Test. Preview refers to giving a cursory look at the chapter and familiarising oneself with its contents. Question means raising questions and seeking answers from the lesson. Now start reading and look for answers of questions you had raised. After reading try to rewrite what you have read and at the end test how much you have been able to understand.


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