The American Revolution was a time when the British colonists in America rebelled against the rule of Great Britain. There were many battles fought and the colonies gained their freedom and became the independent country of the United States. The American Revolutionary War lasted from 1775 until 1783.
13 Colonies : Before the American Revolution, there were several British Colonies in the Americas. Not all of them participated in the revolution. There were 13 colonies which ended up rebelling. These were Delaware, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, and Rhode Island.
Representation : One of the main reasons that the colonists rebelled against Great Britain is that they felt they were not represented in the British government. The British government was making new laws and taxes on the colonies, but the colonies had no say. They wanted to have some say in the British government if they were going to pay high taxes and have to live by British law.
War : War didn’t happen right away. First there were protests and arguments. Then some small skirmishes between the colonists and the local British army. Things just got worse and worse over the course of years until the colonies and Great Britain were at war.
Independence : Each colony had its own local government. In 1774 they each elected officials to represent them at the First Continental Congress. This was the first effort of the colonies to unite and make a single government. In 1776 the Second Continental Congress declared the independence of the United States from Great Britain.
New Government : The new government of the United States was different than the government of the colonist’s homeland, Great Britain. They decided that they didn’t want to be ruled by a king anymore. They wanted a government that was ruled by the people. The new government would be a democratic government with leaders elected by the people and balances of power to make sure that no one could become king.
Timeline from 1799-1815
- 1799, August 23: Receiving news of turmoil in France, Napoleon relinquishes command in Egypt and returns to Paris, a so-called Coup d’état
- December 12: Napoleon elected First Consul of the Consulate.
- 1802– March 25: Treaty of Amiens: the British recognized the French republic and the 2nd European coalition came to an end.(14 months peace)
- May 1: Napoleon restructures French educational system.
- May 19: Legion of Honor established.
- August 2: New constitution adopted, plebiscite confirms Napoleon as First Consul for life.
- 1805 (Napoleon refused to sign a commercial treaty and imposed high tariffs on British imports.. … The British, probably smarting about their lost territories, refused to leave Malta. After only 14 months of peace, Britain once again declared war on France. The Treaty of Amiens had failed.) Napoleon gearing ship to attack Britain.
- October 21: Battle of Trafalgar: It was a naval war fought by the British royal navy against the French navy Spain during the war of 3rd coalition of Napoleonic wars (1799-1815)
- December 2: Battle of Austerlitz. Napoleon defeated the combined forces of Russia and Austria and the 3rd coalition came to an end. With the treaty of Press burg 1806
March 30: Napoleon names his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king of Naples, and appoints other family members to various other posts.
- July 12: Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon as ‘protector’. Initially had 16 member states, later others added, including kingdoms of Saxony and Westphalia.
- Holy Roman Empire abolished.
- September 15: Prussia joins Britain and Russia against Napoleon. 1813
- Battle of Leipzig: The coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden (Quadrapal) decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon 1814
- April 4: Napoleon abdicates his rule and Louis XVIII, a Bourbon, is restored to the French throne
- April 11: Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814) Napoleon agrees to exile in Elba, the allies agree to pay his family a pension. 1815
- February 26: Napoleon escapes from Elba.
- March 20: Napoleon arrives in Paris.
- June 18: Battle of Waterloo.
- June 28: Restoration of Louis XVIII
- October 16:: Napoleon is exiled to Saint Helena
- 1821– May 5: Napoleon dies
- Factors that led to rise of Napoleon
Process of German Revolution
- 1848: Revolution in Austria, Metternich overthrown, the Frankfurt parliament drafted a new constitution and offered to Fredrick William 4, the king of Prussia but he refused to accept it. This dashed the hopes of German nationalists to ground.
- This failure of liberal methods in accomplishing the task of German unification convinced the German nationalists that only militarism could succeed. This disenchantment of nationalists with liberalism was responsible for the emergence of militant nationalists in Germany. The rise of Bismarck in Germany was an outcome of the same.
- 1858: Fredrick William 4 dies
- 1861: Kaiser William 1 was appointed as the king; he installed Bismarck as the Prussian chancellor.
- With appointment of Bismarck as Prussian chancellor, the process of German unification commenced in a real way.
Approach of Bismarck
- Bismarck was a radical nationalist, but also a conservative. He had no efficacy in the faith of liberal methods. He believed that only militarism could succeed in accomplishing the task of German unification.
- While speaking in the Prussian parliament, Bismarck stated that the important issues of the age can’t be solved through discussion and majority votes, but only through a policy of blood and iron.
- Bismarck aimed to carry out German unification under Prussian leadership.
- Bismarck clearly stated that it would not be possible to accommodate both Prussia and Austria within a united Germany. He wanted to oust Austria from Germany so that Prussian dominance could be imposed on lesser Germanic states. There was no space for Austria in Bismarck’s Germany.
Phases of German Revolution
- Phase one- Integration of Schleswig and Holstein 1863: Schleswig and Holstein were placed under the nominal control of Denmark by Vienna congress of 1815.
- In November 1863, king of Denmark tried to annex these two territories. This gave an opportunity to Bismarck to plan their integration with Germany. He formed an alliance with Austria to launch a combined assault against Denmark and both these places were liberated.
- As per the convention of Gerstein, control of Holstein was given over to Austria, while that of Schleswig was handed over to Prussia.
- Phase two-Creation of Northern Germanic Confederation, 1866: Prussia fought war against Austria. Austrian forces were decisively defeated in the battle of Sandoval in 1866.
- As per the provisions of treaty of Prague, 18 states smaller German states of north were merged with Prussia to create northern Germanic confederation. Austria agreed to stay out of German matters.
- Before fighting this war, Bismarck assured Russian and French neutrality.
- French neutrality was censured by giving indication of possible territorial gains to Napoleon 3 for remaining neutral.
- Russia remained neutral because Bismarck had supported the Russian king in suppressing the polish revolution of 1863.
- Phase 3: Integration of Southern German states- Franco-Prussian war of 1871
- Napoleon 3 wrote a letter to Bismarck and demanded territories on river Rhine as per the understanding reached with Bismarck in 1866. Bismarck selectively published the letter written by Napoleon 3 with the intention of convincing southern German states that France was the biggest enemy.
- As a result France attacked Prussia in 1870; southern German states voluntarily merged themselves into the northern Germanic confederation to complete German unification.
- Franco-Prussian war 1870 and French humiliation: the French forces were decisively defeated, 83k French soldiers were imprisoned along with King Napoleon 3. An extremely humiliating treaty of Frankfurt was imposed on France in 1871, this involved the German takeover of the coal rich French region of Alsace Lorraine. The treaty was signed in the hall of mirror, of the palace of Versailles that was the symbol of French prestige