Movements in Himachal before Independence

Mandi Farmer Agitation: The farmers of Mandi raised their voice against the corrupt administration of Minister JivaNand, Begar system & compulsory selling of produce to the King of Mandi Bhawani Sen. The Agitation was led by Shobha Singh of Sarkaghat in 1909.
Mandi Conspiracy 1914-15: The Mandi conspiracy was due to the influence of the Gadar party.Meetings were held in Mandi and Suket states in December 1914 and January 1915.Main leaders Jawahar Singh, Badri, Sidhu Kharara were sentenced to long terms in prison.The Rani Khairgarhi (Laita Kumari) of Mandi was exiled.
Dandra Movement In the year 1930, Raja Ananda Chand undertook a land settlement campaign in Bilaspur state. But during this expedition, the people of the King traumatized the people and they revolted against the king.
PajhotaAndolan: This movement was launched by people of Pajhota in 1942 during the period of Raja Rajinder Prakash. The Second World War (1939) started and in the Sirmour State, many recruitment centres were opened and people were against this.
Quit India Movement inspired this movement. Under the leadership of Vaid Surat Singh, MianGhughu, Basti Ram Pahadi, Chet Ram Verma, Laxmi Singh, Chunchu Ram, Gulab Singh, Mehar Singh, Madan Singh etc. played a prominent role. Dhami Firing Tragedy: Rana of Dhami Dalip Singh was corrupt and collected unfair taxes & Begar.Bhagmal Sahunta, they demanded deduction of land revenue to half, extension of civil liberties and ban on Begar and Dalip Singh refused their demands.On 16th July 1939, people launched a movement against Rana. Dalip Singh ordered firing on the protestors in which two agitators were killed, and 40 were injured.
Jhugga Andolan : This was initiated by people of Bilaspur during Raja Amar Chand’s reign in 1883-84 against mal- administration in the state.


  • 1857 Revolt – Subedar Bhim Singh Thapa of (Naseri Regiment) Gurkha Regiment lead revolt from Kasauli to Jutogh (Shimla).
  • 1924 – revolt under Rattan Singh – Raja Laxman Sen of Suket fled to Dehra Dun.
  • 1936 – Mandi Praja Mandal. Second after Sirmaur PM. Swami Purnanand became its 1st Chairman.
  • 1938 – Formation of Himalayan RiyasatiPraja Mandal @ Ludhiana.
  • 1939 – Kunihar Struggle (led by Pt. Padam Dev)
  • 1942 – Quit India Movement was organized by Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur in Shimla. She was the Raj Kumari of Kapurthala.
  • Pahari Gandhi – Baba Kanshi Ram- vowed to wear black clothes until India got independence.
  • Hardev was the chief architect of Ghadar (revolutionary activities) in Mandi. He was the founder of Arya Samaj in Himachal and was influenced by the emotive thoughts of Lala Lajpat Rai and Bhai Parmanand. He changed his name as Swami Krishnanand to elude the British spies. He is widely known as Sind-ka Gandhi.
  • Hari Singh of Sarkaghat exhibited astonishing bravery. Indian National Army gave him the title of Sher- e-Hind.
  • Narendra Praja Mandal, established in 1921 was known as the Chamber of Princes.
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