Padam Puran mentions that Jalandhar was son of Ganga and Sagar. Jalandhar Puran mentions about death of Jalandhar. Few theories are mentioned about his end: Lord Shiva cut him into pieces and bury him in far-off places so that he not join back. His head and mouth (Shri Jwala ji) were strewn in the north of Beas river, body was dispersed in the area between Satluj and Beas, and feet at Multan.
Kangra Nomenclature
Kangra is distortion of Kan+Garh (Means Head+ to fall).Various Names of Kangra: Jalayandhrayan, Trigart in Mahabhart, Jalandhar in Uttara-Khand of the Padam-Purana/ Hemkosa, Bhimnagar, Che-lan-to-lo of Hiuen-Tsang, Nagarkot and Kot-Kangra by Al Utbi, Bhimkot by Farishta, Katoch by Moorcroft, Susharmpura in Rajatarangini/ Baijnath eulogies.Trigart = In Sanskrit, Tri=3 &Gart is Valley; i.e. of Satluj, Beas & Ravi.
Sources about History of Kangra
Jalandhar is mentioned in Hemkosh (Sanskrit dictionary), Rajtarangini and Uttar-Khand of Padam Puran.Hiuen Tsang (visited India (629-645 AD) region of Harshvardhan) mentioned it as Trigart or Jalandhar (Che-Lan-t’o-lo) and Kullu (K’iu-lu-to).
British Travellers
William FinchMentions Kangra in 1611 ADAt the time of Jahangir (finch didn’t visit Kangra but mentions it Kangra (Purchas Pilgrim).
Thomas CoryatEarliest European to visit (1615 AD)Mentions about re-growth of a cut tongue at Kangra temple.
Forster1783 ADA Civil Officer of EIC (East India Company). Travelled through the outer hills from Nahan, via Bilaspur; then Haripur and Nurpur to Basohli and Jammu; and thence over the Banihal Pass to Kashmir. He didn’t visit Kangra. He travelled in disguise of Muslim trader.
W. Moorcroft (A Veterinarian)1820-22 ADOfficer with EIC travelled from Nahan, via Bilaspur, Mandi and Kullu to Ladakh and Kashmir, and visited Nadaun and Tira – Sujanpur on the way, and met MSC. He did not visit Kangra.
Vigne1835-39 ADIndependent traveller. Visited Nurpur, Chamba& described about Sujanpur in 1842 AD
Barnes1852For Kangra Valley, Barnes said “No scenery in my opinion, present such a sublime & delightful contrasts”.
Katoch Dynasty
Brahmand Puran mentions about genesis of Katoch Dynasty.
Bhumi Chand founded the Katoch dynasty. He reigned around 11,000 years before present.
His mother was earth and father was moon. Devi Ambika is Isht/Kulaj (Kuldevi) of Katoch Rajas.
Susharam Chandra (1,000-1,500 BC): 234th, participated in the Mahabharata war and the construction of Kangra Fort.
Parmanand Chand (280) Fourth century BC: According to legend, it was probably known as Poros, and war against Alexender.
Udayavan/Udaybhan Chand (287): Against Emperor Ashoka in 280 BC war, Katoch king lost his capital at Multan (first Town of Asia).
Jagdish Chand-III (434): In 1009 AD was king during invasion of Mahmud Ghaznavi, who captured the Kangra fort and committed unprecedented loot of the royal treasure.
Lakshmi Chand – II (438): In 1150 AD lost the area of Katoch Jalandhar area. His son Parab Chand made a state named Jaswant in 1170, which was the first partition of Kangra state. Other states, which were broken down from Kangra in time, were Guler (1416), Sibba (1450) and Dattarpur (1550).
Rup Chand Chandra (453) 1360 e-looted Delhi and run coins (‘Rupa currency’) in his name. In 1365, Feroze Shah Tughlaq aggression was successfully fought for 6 months.
Raja Karam Chand (457) became king in 1405 AD by accident. It happened after 22 days disappearance of his elder brother Raja Hari Chand (456) who ruled till 1405.’Great grandson of Raja Karam Chand (457) was Raja Narender Chand (460). His Second Rani delivered a baby at a potter’s house, was named Subir Chand. Potter’s name was “Ladoo”. Katoch clan is also known as “Ladoo-Vanshi”. Subir Chand also captured Kangra Fort.
Raja Hari Chand– was contemporary to Jahangir. Jahangir after occupying Kangra fort, erected a Gate in his name (Jahangiri Gate).Jahangir used to keep 22 Rajput princes from Punjab Hill states, in his court as hostage. They used to be called Miyan.
Maharaja Bhim Chand (1691-1697 AD) :-He was contemporary to Emperor Aurangzeb. He made an alliance with Guru Gobind Singh and failed the attack of Mughal chief Mian Khan and Jammu Raja. For saving Hindu temple he got title of Dharam Rakshak (Defender of the Hindu faith) by Guru Gobind Singh and still remembered in Sikh ballads.
Raja Hamir Chand 475th King (1700-1747 AD) :- He is founder of Hamirpur , built a small fort at Sara Pani near present day Hamirpur.Raja Abhi Chand, 476th, built Thakurdwara at Alampur & fort Abhimanpur, near Sujanpur.
Akbar & Kangra
There is a play written on the life of Maharaja Dharam Chand called “Dharam Chand Natak” written in A.D. 1562.
Jai Chand became Raja in 1570 AD but was arrested on suspicion by Akbar with the help of Raja Ram Chand of Guler.
In A.D. 1572, Emperor Akbar ordered Khan Jahan Hussain (better known as Hussain Quli Khan) and the
Raja of Guler Ram Singh to annex the kingdom of Kangra and place it in the hands of Raja Birbal.
In 1573, Finance Minister of Akbar, Todar Mal carried out the permanent settlement of 66 Kangra villages, the fertile areas of Kangra for tax collection by Mughals.
He also made a famous statement to Akbar that “I have taken all the flesh & left the bones only”.Akbar came to visit Kangra but went back from the borders of Kangra on the 23rd of March AD 1582.
Kangra and Jahangir
In 1615 AD Jahangir deputed Suraj Mal Pathania (son of Raja Basu), the ruler of Nurpur and Raja Man for the conquest.
Suraj Mal revolted & acted against Mughal army.
Jagir of Jahangir’s father-in-law, Itmadaula was also looted and troops were dispersed.
Ghamand Chand (478)
Ghamand Chand became king in 1751.
In A.D. 1758 Ahmed Shah made Maharaja Ghamand Chand the Governor of Jalandhar Doab and the title of ‘Nizam-e-Jalandhar’ conferred upon him as a hereditary distinction (the only Hindu Rajput Nizam in India).
In 1770, Jassa Singh of Ramgarhia Misl defeated Ghamand Chand and took tribute untill 1774 when Ghamand Chand died.
Maharaja Sansar Chand (480)
He was born in 1765 at Bijapur / Vijaypur, and sat on the throne in 1775 AD just at the age of 10.
In 1794 (Nerti) with Raja Raj Singh of Chamba for fertile area of Rihalu.
Raja Raj was killed in battle by Jit Singh and his Samadhi was created at place called Dehra.
The Raja of Mandi Ishwari Sen was taken as prisoner and held at the Chaumukhi fort of Nadaun for 12 years.In 1793, Maharaja Sansar Chand attacked on Kehlur/Bilaspur and captured Gadhi (Forts) of North Sutlej River from King Mahan Chand.
In 1793 MSC fought another battle against Raja of Bilaspur & Raja of Sirmour, Dharam Prakash at Kehlur border.In 1804 MSC had already beaten Gorkha commander Amar Singh Thapa & a Treaty was also made.In 1805 AD Gorkha attacked Sansar Chand near Mahal Morian.
On 24th August, AD 1809, Kangra fort was handed over to the Ranjeet Singh by Maharaja Sansar Chand (Acc to the Treaty of Jwalamukhi 1809).
Maharaja Sansar Chand died in December, AD 1823 after a long reign of 47 years.
Anirudh Chand (481)
In AD 1823 Maharaja Rai Anirudh Chand (481) sat on the Gaddi.
Anirudh Chand was forced to attend Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court and was also made to built his own haveli in Lahore.
At Haridwar, he got his two sisters married to Raja Sudarshan Shah of Tehri Garhwal. Anirudh died in 1831, while in exile.
Jaswan State
Purab Chand founded Jaswan state in 1170 AD. The capital was Rajpura. Una district was formerly known as Jaswan Doon.
Raja Jai Chand (1570) of Kangra was arrested by Akbar while his son Vidhi Chand was kept under the protection of King Govind Chand of Jaswan.
In 1816, Maharaja Ranjit Singh invited Raja Umed Singh of Jaswant to participate in the assembly of Sialkot, which was rejected by Raja Umed Singh and Veer Singh of Nurpur. Maharaja Ranjit Singh imposed heavy fines on both of them. Due to heavy burden of fines, both had to relinquish the state. In time, he rebelled against the British in 1848, but his property was confiscated and he was exiled to Almora where he died in 1849.
In 1848 AD, Raja Jai Singh (1849-1863) also rebelled against the British, but eventually he was defeated and was imprisoned for the Almora, where he died in 1863. His son, King Ran Singh, was rescued in Ramkot (Jammu) with the help of the Maharaja of Jammu (his father-in-law).
In 1870 AD, the daughter of Maharaja of Jammu was married to Raghunath Singh, son of Raja Ran Singh. In addition, 13,000 square areas were given in dowry in 1877 AD.
Guler State
Guler of olden times formed Dehra area of today.Once Raja Hari Chand was trapped in a well, while hunting in MaujaHarsar (Guler).A merchant rescued the Raja Hari Chander after 22 days.He created his new Kingdom in Guler & built a fort (1416 AD) and named after himself i.e. Haripur on banks of Ban-Ganaga, Banganga, Kurali and Neogal rivers. He killed the Gwala who had suggested him the ideal location of fort. The fort was built on body of Gwala. Guler was earlier called Gwalior, a deformation of ‘Gwala’.Raja Karam Chand was the first to change his surname to Guleria.
Raja Ram Chand (1540-1570 AD): He gave refuge to Islam Shah, son of Sher Shah Suri. Islam Shah amicably used to call him Raja Parshuram (from Ram).
Raja Roop Chand (1610-1635 AD): He helped Mughals and took active part in siege of Kangra fort in 1620 AD. He also helped the Mughal forces of Jahangir when Shahjahan (Khurram) revolted (1623 AD) with the help of Raja Jagat Singh of Nurpur.
Raja Govardhan Singh (1745-60 AD): He had defeated Adina Beg Khan over a quarrel for his horse. Guler became vassal of Raja Ghamand Chand of Kangra in 1752 AD. Govardhan was first major patron of Kangra Paintings in Himachal hills.
Raja Bhup Singh (1790-1811 AD): Bhup Singh was respected by MRS and was called ‘Baba’ by him. In 1813, Raja was ordered to assist MRS forces at Indus but Raja was treacherously arrested after invitation to Lahore. MRS annexed his territory in 1813 AD and gave him Jagir which was ¼ of his state.
Raja Shamsher Singh (1826-1877 AD): He was the last of the King of Guler. He got Kingdom in Sanad of 1853 AD and died without leaving a legal heir, thus, state had to lapse.
Raja Jai Singh (1878-1884 AD): He was allowed to succeed after a year as an ‘act of grace’ and was also granted the title of Raja.
Raja Baldev Chand (1920-1959 AD): He was the 1st Vice-Regal Darbari in Kangra District.
Sibba State
An offshoot of Guler, Sibba was founded by Sibram Chand in 1450 AD. He was of fourth generation after Hari Chand, the founder of Guler
Raja Bhup Singh of Kangra invaded Sibba in 1808 AD.
Sibba further ramified into Koi &Kotlabranch.
It came under the Sikh Misls and under later MSC in 1786 AD until 1806, when Gorkhas invaded Kangra.
In 1808, Raja Bhup Singh of Guler annexed Sibba.
In 1809, it came under MRS and was separated from Guler in 1819 AD, MRS did not annex it as his PM, Dhyan Singh had got 2 princesses from Sibba married in his family.
In 1845 AD, son of Gobind Singh, Ram Singh fought for Sikhs in second Sikh war in 1848, got back Sibba fort and ousted Mian Devi Singh from his Jagir in Kotla.
In 1919 AD, title of Raja was conferred upon Jai Singh by British, who was Jagirdar of Sibba.
The last ruler of the Sibba was Sham Singh (1926 AD * Sibba=Sham) Datarpur State.
Datarpur (11 King)
Datarpur was an offshoot of Sibba as Sibba was from Guler. Datar Chand founded it in 1550 AD. The clan of the Datarpur people was ‘Dhadwal’.
It came under MSC in 1786 AD until 1806 and Datarpur supported Gorkhas against MSC.
In 1809 AD, MRS made it a subject and reduced state to a Jagir. After the death of reigning King Gobind Chand, it was annexed in 1818 by MRS.
King Jagat Singh rebelled in 1848 AD with Kangra rulers and was deported to Almoraand later he died in 1877 AD at Banaras.
In 1849, the area of Datarpur was added to Sibba manor and the British Raj took it under the name of ‘Dada-Sibba’
Kutlehar State (Pal Dynasty) It was established in 750 AD by a Brahmin named Gopal in Uttar Pradesh. He belonged to the Kundal tribe and later became the Rajput due to being the ruler.
Ghamand Chand occupied the Chowki area of Kutlehar in 1758 AD.
In 1786, Sansar Chand completely dispossessed the Raja of the territory, but it was restored during Gurkha invasion.
From 1809, the state was subject to the Sikhs and in 1825, Ranjit Singh laid siege to annex it, but Raja Narain Pal of the state stood like a rock and did not allow the progress of the siege. It was on the payment of Rs. 10,000 Raja agreed to surrender the strong fort of Kotwalbah.
Raja Narain Pal expelled the Sikhs from Kotwalbah during the first Sikh war.King Amrit Pal (1798-1832) was given a manor of 10,000 rupees by the British.
Kutlehar was the smallest in Kangra princely states.
Bhanghal State (Pal Dynasty)
Like Kutlehar, a Brahmin (Pal) founded Bhanghal in 1200 AD.
Consists of Bara Bhanghal, Chotta Bhangal & Bir Bhaghal.
Bhanghal lost much of its area in invasions by Mandi and Kullu between 1240 AD to 1637 AD.
Raja Prithvi Pal of Bhanghal (1709-1720 AD) was invited to Mandi by his father-in-law &Raja of Mandi, Sidh Sen. Prithi Pal was mysteriously killed by Sidh Sen after a month of hospitality. The reason may be Prithvi’s growing proximity to Suket King (enemy of Sidh) or because Sidh Sen wanted his territory. After this, Rajmata sought help of Raja Man Singh of Kullu who drove back the invading Mandi forces. But Man Singh annexed big area of Bhanghal to Kullu as well.
Raja Raghunath Pal (1720-1735 AD), defended two invasions by Raja Sidh Sen of Mandi.
Raja Dalel Pal (1735-1749 AD), lost territory to the combined attack of Mandi, Kullu, Bilaspur, Nalagarh, Guler and Jaswan.
Rajendra Pal (born: 1926 AD) was last King of Bhanghal.
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